Thursday, September 19, 2019
Sigrid Axelsson SP3A Philosophy 1 Philosophy of language; Essay Question # 4 This essay will specifically try to answer question number; 4) What is the meaning of Ã¢â¬Ëin the headÃ¢â¬â¢ (ideational)? How does WittgensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s beetle box through experiment suggest otherwise? The meaning Ã¢â¬Å"in the headÃ¢â¬ is ideational and the Wittgenstein beetle box theory supports that everything is created in the head and is ideational, but not that everyone has the same concept of reality. Is the meaning Ã¢â¬Å"in the headÃ¢â¬ (ideational)? Ideational is when an idea pops up in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s head and a light bulb is switched on within the person who has the ideational moment in the mind. Yes, Ã¢â¬Å"in the headÃ¢â¬ is referring to the ideational theories where a sentence or a word is, as an example Ã¢â¬Å"in the headÃ¢â¬ is referring to the metal image of the inside of the head that is created in the brain when the word or sentence of Ã¢â¬Å"in the headÃ¢â¬ is seen and heard by the human being. This is seen with LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s explanation, that when the word red is seen or heard, the brain portrays redness as the metal image within the brain, and th...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Striving for success nobody thinks that he follows somebodyÃ¢â¬â¢s well planned way. A single person or a small group does not create the notion of success, but it is created by our whole society. The myth of instant wealth is one of the most popular myths society uses. In fact society uses the hope of instant wealth to make people work harder. The fact that they do not have a real chance of obtaining that wealth by competing in the economic system stays invisible to the most of people.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When we imagine a successful person, we see a person, who is working on some company and is busy working all the time. This person has a nice car and beautiful apartment or house, where he does not spend much time because he is so busy. We get this impression since we were born. Movies, magazines, and news Ã¢â¬â everything supports this notion of a successful person.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Interesting thing is that notion of success did not change very much since the beginning of last century. There happened some variations but the idea stayed the same: working hard will bring you to the top of the society circle. This idea became very popular in the end of eighteen hundreds thanks to the stories, written by Horatio Alger. In spite of similarity of all his books, his works had an edition of hundred thousand copies. Simple idea of getting into upper class circles starting from the very down, was accepted by society as a model of success achievement. People have believed that if they will work hard than they can achieve success.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Richard Hunter, main character of the book Ã¢â¬Å"Ragged DickÃ¢â¬ has been a typical example of American notion of success. According to this book everybody can became well recognized and financially prosperous if they would work hard and show their merit. Dick, Ã¢â¬Å"a young gentleman on the way to fame and fortune,Ã¢â¬ as his friend Fosdick from the story Ã¢â¬Å"Ragged DickÃ¢â¬ describes him in the end of the story, climbs on the social ladder, starting from the very bottom. Being absolutely illiterate and having no money in the beginning, Dick gets into business circle of people, by working hard and showing his merit. Why did this story become so popular in the end of eighteenth century? People always need hope and this story gave hope to everyone. If person from the lowest class of society could get into the high class then everyone else was able to do the same.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The Three RÃ¢â¬â¢s Using the three RÃ¢â¬â¢s- reduce, reuse and recycle help the world to cut down on the amount of waste being thrown away. They conserve natural resources, landfill space and energy. When people go outside, they see trash on the ground instead of the trashcan. This doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t help the economy instead it affects it. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s resources are suffering with major problems which lead to consequences. There are many ways to conserve the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s resources. However, the three most efficient ways to conserve the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s resources are reducing, reusing, and recycling products and materials.Reducing is one of the most efficient ways to help conserve resources. Reducing is cutting down on materials that are unnecessary. Using reduction conserves natural resources and uses less than usual in order to avoid waste. Energy is one of the resources that are limited. Reducing energy can help consume fossil fuels that are becomin g increasingly limited on supply. For example, instead of leaving the lights on when someone exits the house or room, he or she could turn off the lights. Also, people can unplug their appliances that are not in use to help reduce the use of energy within their household.Gas is another problem the earth is restricted on. Reducing the use of gas helps reduce the climate change in the world. For instance, people can reduce gas by carpooling with a neighbor or a friend. He or she could also ride their bikes to work, to school, or even to the park. This helps reduce the use of energy and gas. Although reducing helps the earth use less, reusing materials helps reduce waste. Reusing materials or products is the second most efficient way to conserve resources.Reusing materials helps avoid and slow down the process of products being turned into waste and reduces the number of products being brought. Clothes are essential items to be reused and can always be changed into something new. Cloth es productions are a major drain on natural resources and can involve unethical social practices. For example, people can donate their old clothing instead of throwing it into the trash. Also, people can restyle their old clothing, turning a pair of old jeans into a headband or even cut out designs and put them onto a shirt.This helps people who do not have clothing, give people ideas of new styling, and avoids waste. Plastic bags are another thing we should reuse. Plastic bags are necessary products that should be reused but arenÃ¢â¬â¢t. Plastic bags production consumes millions of gallons of oil that could be used for fuel and heating. For instance, when someone goes into the supermarket, he or she should purchase reusable bags instead of the plastic bags. He or she could even purchase fiber bags or cloth bags that can be reused multiple of times as he or she goes into different stores.Reusing these items helps reduce waste thatÃ¢â¬â¢s being put into the air and water. Althoug h reusing products and materials may help reduce waste, recycling helps reduce pollution. Recycling is the third most efficient way to conserve resources. It is something that is very common in most countries. When raw materials are used in the manufacture of new goods derived from the core elements of old products, there is an enormous saving of limited and finite natural resources. Recycling is reusing materials or products in original or changed forms rather than discarding them as wastes.Aluminum is the most common material that is recycled in this economy. Recycling aluminum creates more jobs, helps the environment, and saves natural resources. For example, aluminum cans get recycled the most. Mostly for the money people could receive back. Also, beer bottle caps can be recycled and could be made into something different, such as it being turned into a decoration or even used for a project. Paper is the second most common material that is recycled. Making paper from recycled pa per uses less energy than making paper from trees. For example, everyone receives newspapers in the morning.Instead of throwing it into the trashcan, he or she could recycle it. Books are another example of paper that can be recycled. Used books that can no longer be used could be shredded and recycled. Recycling is the most important out of the three RÃ¢â¬â¢s. Although reducing, reusing, and recycling are important, many people do not believe that they help save the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s resources. They are sadly mistaken because they help use less, reduce waste, and reduce pollution into the air. This helps prevent global warming. The three rÃ¢â¬â¢s all help conserve energy within the world.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Every crime is the result of individual, physical and social conditions. (Ferri, 1893). In Ã¢â¬Å"Thinking seriously about crimeÃ¢â¬ Jock Young described crime as Ã¢â¬Å"a product of the undersocialisation of the individual. This can be a result of (a) an innate genetic or physiological incapacity of the individual to be easily socialised; (b) a family background which was ineffective in the use of socialisation techniques in its child-rearing practices; (c) a social setting which lacked coherent and consistent consensual valuesÃ¢â¬ . This statement nicely introduces this essay, as all the main aspects that lead people in to crime will be discussed. Drugs are constantly the issue of intense government and political debate. Drugs and Alcohol are major factors in why people commit crime. An individual may be dealing in drugs to make money; they may commit crimes to feed their habit or they may just use drugs for recreational use. All these are practices are illegal. In the United States of America the number of inmates and prisoners has more than tripled since 1980. Four out of every five got there with the help of drugs and alcohol, says a report released by the National Centre on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. The report says: Of 1.7 million prisoners in 1996, 1.4 million had violated drug or alcohol laws. They had been under the influence when they committed their crimes, they had stolen to support their habit or had a history of drug or alcohol abuse that led them to commit crimes. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Drugs-Crime ConnectionÃ¢â¬ John Ball discusses the criminality of heroin addicts. Ã¢â¬Å"There is a general agreement among criminologists that an increase in criminality commonly occurs following the onset of heroin addictionÃ¢â¬ . Ball goes on to present the results of a survey conducted on a large group of heroin addicts and their activities whilst on and off heroin. The results are quite significant and clearly show that more crimes were committed whilst on heroin. It is important to note that most of the crimes reported were for theft and that drug use or possession was not classified as a crime. This is hardly surprising. Drug addiction is expensive. But have these people been propelled in to crime or are they committing crime by their own choice? It was most likely that they chose to take heroin but eventually could not come off it. They were then forced, because of their addiction, to go out and commit crime. So in a way they were propelled in to committing crime. But the question should be asked: What propelled them in to taking drugs? Are individuals who grow up or live in poverty propelled in to committing crime? It is certain that individuals who live in poverty are more prone to committing crime than individuals who live in opulence. Comparing crime figures for different areas will clearly show that. But do individuals who live in poverty only commit crime for financial gain? The fact that money is not in abundance is not a just reason to commit crime. There are many people who live in less privileged areas that do not commit crime. So what is the main reason why a person will commit crime? An IndividualsÃ¢â¬ upbringing surely plays the most significant part in determining how they will turn out in life. An article published by Reuters in 1998 discussed the effects absent fathers had on children: Ã¢â¬Å"Sons with absent fathers are more likely to be jailedÃ¢â¬ . When a father is not present in the home, his son is twice as likely to end up in jail, according to a new study by Cynthia Harper of the University of Pennsylvania and Sara S. McLanahan of Princeton University. Tracking a sample of 6,000 males ages 14 to 22 from 1979 to 1993, the sociologists also found that even after accounting for differences due to race, income and education: The boys who grow up with a stepfather in the home were Ã¢â¬Å"more at risk than those with an absent father, with roughly three times greater risk of incarceration than those who live with both their parentsÃ¢â¬ . Young men whose parents divorce during their adolescence were Ã¢â¬Å"roughly one and a half times as likely to wind up in jail as children from intact familiesÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â faring slightly better than boys who were born to single mothers. While whites have lower rates of father absenteeism than blacks, white youths whose families split are at a higher risk of incarceration than their black peers. The presence of live-in grandparents in households without fathers Ã¢â¬Å"appears to help improve youths' chances of avoiding incarcerationÃ¢â¬ , the study found. The lack of a decent role model in a childsÃ¢â¬ upbringing can cause many problems. When a child is growing up he/she needs discipline. They need to know what is right and what is wrong. Discipline is best administered by both parents and not just the mother. The statistic above clearly show how detrimental an absent father is to a child but other homes have fathers who, although present, did not nurture their children, or provide basic instruction on establishing healthy boundaries. Child abuse is found in families at every income. It is much more common at the lower income levels. Children who grow up in violent homes tend to use violence when they become adults in marriage and as parents. Each generation directly affects its descendants and indirectly influences later generations in the same family line. If a child grew up in an abusive household and later went on to commit violent crime, would his upbringing be a major factor? From the evidence presented here it can be concluded that an individualsÃ¢â¬ upbringing has a significant influence on their life. So an individual can be propelled in to crime. But perhaps he/she still has to be a certain type of person? Can people be born bad? The possibility that genetic research might identify genes for criminal TendenciesÃ¢â¬ has stimulated intense controversy. Media interest in the case of Stephen Thomas Mobley in which a Ã¢â¬Ëgenetic defenceÃ¢â¬ was pursued, together with News coverage of a conference in London in 1995 on Ã¢â¬ËThe Genetics of Criminal and Antisocial BehaviourÃ¢â¬ , brought the question of a link between genetics and Criminal behaviour to wide public attention. Mobley was convicted in February 1994 of the murder of John Collins and sentenced to death. Inspired by patterns of aggression in the Mobley family tree, his lawyers attempted to put together a genetic defence, not in hope of an acquittal, but to try to have the sentence reduced from death to life imprisonment (Mobley vs. The State 1995). The defence claims that there is a pattern of aggression and business success in MobleyÃ¢â¬ s ancestry that suggests a relevant genetic underlying for his criminal behaviour. In MobleyÃ¢â¬ s case the jury rejected the genetic defence. Whatever the merits of that particular case, might the findings of Behavioural Genetics provide any grounds for a legal defence? Since then a steady output of Newspaper articles and television documentaries have reflected continuing interest and concern over the suggestion that criminals might be born, not made. The nature/nurture debate rages on in many channels, but amongst psychologists and geneticists it is largely resolved that both are important. There are two possible theses of Genetic Determinism. Firstly there is Ã¢â¬ËWeak Genetic DeterminismÃ¢â¬ which suggests genetics has a role in the causation of a range of Behavioural and/or personality traits, such as aggression, dominance and IQ which are relevant to criminality. Secondly there is Ã¢â¬ËStrong Genetic DeterminismÃ¢â¬ which suggests genetics is a causally sufficient condition (under normal circumstances) for a range of behavioural and/or personality traits that Lead to criminality. But can an individuals genes lead to a life in crime? Are they the main contributing factor? Weak genetic determinism seems to be the more plausible theory. Strong genetic determinism would suggest that there exists something like a Ã¢â¬Å"Murderer geneÃ¢â¬ or a Ã¢â¬Å"Bank robber geneÃ¢â¬ . We clearly know this not to be true. We would then see a more even spread of crime throughout the nation if this were so. The premise that genes contribute towards personsÃ¢â¬ outcome in life can be accepted. If an individual has genes which make them highly aggressive then that person would be more prone to violent situations than a person whose genes make them a less aggressive person. The same would apply to IQ and dominance. However, it is sensible to say that not enough is known about genetics to make these theories solid fact but enough is known to show that genes can influence a person when certain situations exist. It is therefore safe to conclude that an individual is not propelled in to crime because of his genes, they can only influence him. This essay has looked at many possible reasons why individuals are propelled in to committing crime. We know that individualsÃ¢â¬ upbringing is clearly a large factor in determining an individualsÃ¢â¬ outcome in life. When an individual is being brought up he/she are taught what is right and wrong by their parents. The data shown in this essay clearly shows the detrimental effect that absent parents have on a child. The possibility that genetics plays a key role in the reasons why people commit crime has been looked at. It is safe to say that most likely, individuals are not propelled in to crime because they were Ã¢â¬Å"born badÃ¢â¬ . It is also safe to say that not enough is known about genetics to present a concrete conclusion on the matter. From the data shown we know that when people are on drugs such as heroin, they will commit crime. Most individuals commit crime of their own accord. Whether they had a poor upbringing, they live in a Ã¢â¬Å"problem areaÃ¢â¬ , are on drugs or have Ã¢â¬Å"criminal genesÃ¢â¬ they still commit crimes for personal gain. They are not propelled in to committing anything.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The security and welfare of people is very important in a society. In order to ensure that people are secure and safe, some measures may be employed although they may be controversial. The example of airport security scans represents such a circumstance. The full body scanners are used detect objects that are on the body of an individual for security reasons without requiring the individual to remove their clothes or have physical contact with the device. Statistics indicate that as of December 2013 an estimated 740 scanners (full body scanners) these devices were in use at more than 150 airports in the United States (TSA). They are effective in identifying suspicious objects that a person may be carrying. However, there are concerns whether use of the full body actual really is a necessary precaution or a practice that invades the privacy of travelers. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The devices are effective in detecting suspicious objects that may be concealed including both metallic and non-metallic objects. As opposed to metal detectors which identify objects that are made of metallic materials, the scanners used in airports detect both metal and non-metallic objects. They uncover objects that a physical pat-down would reveal but fail to be identified by a metal detector such as chemical explosives and plastic explosives. The device therefore performs the function of both a metal detector and a physical pat-down in revealing various dangerous devices at airports. People who have sinister motives or who desire to break the law by moving illegal items through airports would therefore not be able to succeed in perpetuating their plans because of the presence of the scanners. The primary objective of the scanners is hence achieved and safety of passengers as well as national security is secured. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The fact that it performs the duties of both a physical pat-down and a metal detector means that the device facilitates time saving and is cost effective (TSA). Regardless of the high costs incurred in purchasing and installing it, the device would replace two security guards responsible for physical pat-downs (one guard for each gender). The airport using the device would hence save on wages for two people and less time would be consumed compared to the time used during a physical pat-down. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Physical pat-downs are considered by various people to be intrusive and full body scanners provide a better alternative that is not as intrusive as pat-downs and that is more thorough. However, since they still examine the body of an individual in-depth, they still make people to feel that their privacy has been invaded. In order to further protect the privacy of people undergoing such scans, screeners are located in a different room from the individual where they can view images without exposing the identity of the person undergoing the scan (Tessler). In addition, security officers entering the viewing room are not allowed to enter with mobile phones, cameras or any gadgets that can take images and store or transmit them (Tessler). Still, fears remain that such images may be stored and used in other platforms such as uploading them to the internet. Authorities provide counterarguments such as the assertion that functions that are responsible for storag e or transmission are not active but rather that they are disabled prior to the installation of these devices in airports. This, though, does not overrule the possibility of technicians managing to enable such functions. Furthermore, it is not quite clear the reason behind inclusion of such functions in the device yet they get disabled prior to installation. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The costly nature of full body scanners is a major limitation that raises the costs of startup for people wishing to enter the aviation industry. Much as they are costly, they fail to reveal objects that are hidden in body cavities and are not capable of revealing objects that are of low density. It is therefore apparent that full body scanner despite of the significant popularity they have gained in combating security threats and illegal practices are incapable of combating drug smuggling that is executed through concealment of drugs in body cavities (Tessler). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Full body scanners create a potential for harassment or embarrassment of specific groups of people. The device can detect medical equipment that may be connected to body parts such as catheters and it may necessitate further examination to confirm the identity of the object detected (Gartner et al). This would embarrass the victim who would feel that they have been singled out because of their medical condition. Transgender people are also susceptible to such embarrassment as the scanners are capable of detecting prosthetics such as testicles and breasts and the need may arise to further examine individuals whose images indicate the presence of both breasts and testicles as one of the two body features may be an improvised tool to conceal weapons, drugs or other illegal objects or objects not allowed through airport security (Gartner et al). Conclusion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Full body scanners are recommended to improve airport security and only few loopholes are existent like the inability to detect objects in body cavities. Although much criticism has been directed at the devices, much of it is only based on assumptions and not factual information. On the contrary, the benefits of the device are validated by real life examples therefore full body scanners are largely beneficial. References Gartner M., Heyl M., Holstein A. and Thewalt A. What can the Ã¢â¬ËnakedÃ¢â¬â¢ scanner really see? Bild. 22 July 2010. Web. 8 April 2014 Tessler, Joelle. Airport full-body scanners have benefits, and limits. The Denver Post. 31 December 2009. Web. 8 April 2014 Transportation Security Administration, TSA. Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT). 12 February 2014. Web. 8 April 2014 Source document
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Agriculture is a vital sector of PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and accounted for almost 30 percent of GDP annually, according to government estimates. The sector directly supports three-quarters of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s population, employs half the labor force, and contributes a large share of foreign exchange earnings. The main agricultural products are cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, and vegetables, in addition to milk, beef, mutton, and eggs. Pakistan depends on one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest irrigation systems to support production. The following are the main crops cultivated in Pakistan: Wheat: Wheat is a staple food used in manufacture of baked products. It is grown on Barani lands. Wheat is grown in Punjab, Sindh and some parts of K.P.K for cultivation of wheat. The temperature is favorable from October to May for the production of wheat. It does not need a lot of water. Pakistan is not self sufficient in wheat production and has to import wheat from foreign countries. It accounts for over 70% of gross cereals and over 36% of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s acreage is devoted to wheat cultivation. Rice: Rice is a Kharif crop and needs a great deal of water and heat. It is known as Ã¢â¬Å"crop of waterÃ¢â¬ . It is grown in Punjab and Sindh. North-eastern Punjab and Larkana district are main rice growing regions. The Irri, Basmati and desi varieties are grown in Pakistan. Basmati is the most famous variety of rice grown in Pakistan. Its highest acreage is in the north eastern part of Pakistan. Pakistan is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s fourteenth largest producer of rice. Pakistan produces about 6 million tons of rice a year. Sugar Cane Sugarcane is included in both Rabi and Kharif Crops. It is an important cash crop of Pakistan. It is a type of long grass Ã¢â¬Å"perennialÃ¢â¬ in nature. It is the most important and cheapest source of refined sugar. Gur,Alcohol and Desi Shakkar are also prepared from Sugar cane.The left out stalk fibers (bagasse) are used in the paper industries. It is cultivated in the spring season and harvested in November-December. It is mostly cultivated in canal irrigated areas of Punjab, KPK and Sindh provinces. Cotton Cotton also known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Silver FiberÃ¢â¬ is the most important cash crop of Pakistan. It is known to have been produced in the Indus plain since 3000 BC. Pakistan, ranks fifth in world cotton production and earns a large amount of foreign exchange from its export. It accounts for approximately one half of the all materials that are made into cloth and provides employment to 2/3rd of industrial labour force Cotton is a Kharif crop and is grown in canal irrigated areas of Punjab and Sindh and also in some parts of Baluchistan and KPK.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Reflective journal - Essay Example This chapter presents a transparent idea about gerontology and what it is all about. Starting from the etymology of the word to its recent purpose and development are discussed thoroughly and with sound evidences throughout the chapter. Chapter 1 of the book prepares its readers to understand the complexity and myth regarding aging. The evidences are skilfully derived and help to wipe out many common inhibitions regarding old age. The first chapter itself shows the path that the entire book deals with. Old age is nothing more than a passing phase of life and has its own delicacies and intricacies very much similar to any other phase of human life. The book is a psychological plethora and treasure house of academic research about the adulthood as a phase in human life. It systematically enables its readers to understand the subtleties of old age and the initiating chapter in this regard is very helping and thoughtful and renders a free passage, access to the entire volume generating elaborate and skilful interest. Chapter 2 of the book precisely deals with the troubles and major myths concerned with the problems of aging. The precise definition for the initiating period for adulthood is difficult. The chronological age for the adulthood varies from culture to culture. At places it is dependent on the activity and responsibility, an individual is bearing. At other places, it is guided by certain cultural complexities and inhibitions. The chapter is precisely concerned with the events that mark the transitional phases of life. Events which are responsible for marking the initiation of the adulthood, along with the concepts of love, EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Identity crisis, the concept of intimacy are some of the key concepts discussed in the chapter thoroughly. The chapter 2 of the book bearing the name Ã¢â¬Å"Young Adulthood: