Monday, September 30, 2019

Online Shop System Problem Statement Essay

Customer can browser through the product catalog and add the items to shopping cart. He can proceed to checkout as long as his shopping cart is not empty. Customer will require to login to the system when he proceed to checkout, or he can create an account if he not yet have one. The order will charge to the credit card registered in customer’s account. Customer need to provides full name, email address, phone number, credit card and billing address details when creating an account. Customer can login to the system to maintain his account information, such as changing phone number, address, and credit card details, and check the status of his orders. Upon order received, the sales staff will process the order by charge to customer’s credit card. Once the order has been charged, he will then mark the order as paid and pass to courier company and deliver them to customer. If the items customer ordered is out of stock, then the order will mark as on hold. Once the item(s) arrived, the order will pass to courier company for delivery. Courier company will pack the item with standard packaging, but if the order is marked as gift, then the the items will pack as gift. If the items arrived with damage, customer can return it by register in the online shop. Courier company will collect the item from customer and sales staff will refund the money for that item. Marketing staff responsible to maintain the product catalog. He can also setup the promotion item list and send promotion email to customer.

Sunday, September 29, 2019


Tracing the footprints of Proteomics – To compare and study the techniques used in proteomics since the last decade. Abstract: Proteomics is a study of the proteome of an organism. The last few decades have seen a rapid progress in the development of this field. This paper attempts to compare and contrast the way in which proteomics studies are performed today as opposed to those performed ten years ago and analyse its future implications. The thrust of research while studying biology at a molecular level initially was focused specifically on the genomes of various organisms. As scientists discovered the intricacies of genes and their functionalities, the attention was soon drawn towards the end result of the central dogma of molecular biology, namely, the proteins, produced through translation of RNAs. Therefore, to study the proteins produced in an organism, referred to as the proteome, not just as products of a genome, but more importantly how they interact and bring about changes at the macro level, the field of proteomics has emerged. (1) Proteins play a pivotal role in carrying out various functions in a body at the structural and dynamic levels. Proteins as enzymes and hormones regulate the vital metabolic processes and as structural components provide stability to the cellular components. The knowledge obtained through the study of these systems gives an insight into the overall functioning of the living organisms. In spite of having similar genetic blue prints, the protein expression in various organisms are regulated differently through diverse networks of protein-protein interactions. Hence, proteomics provides an understanding about these regulatory processes and establishes the differences and similarities between the evolutionary pathways of the organisms by grouping them under phylogentic trees. Further, drugs can be developed for specific diseases by designing structural analogues of proteins responsible for diseased conditions after elucidating their structures, which can then up or down regulate metabolic processes. Thus, the study of proteins plays an essential part of researches carried out in other related fields of study such as developmental and evolutionary biology and drug designing. (1)(2) Since the invention of the 2-Dimentional Gel Electrophoresis in the 1970s, which is considered to be the stepping stone of modern day protein studies, scientists have been constantly striving to develop new and potent methods to study proteomics. Thus, this paper is an attempt to identify and compare these techniques which have been used and improved over the last decade. The popular and preferred procedure to study the proteome of an organism comprises of three major steps, isolation, separation on 2-D gel and analysis through a mass spectrometer. Most of the improvements revolve around this basic protocol. 2-D gel electrophoresis was one of the first methods which were used to analyse the proteome of an organism. In this technique, the protein is separated on the basis of its charge and size. The proteins are first separated on the basis of their different charges in the 1st dimension, following which they are separated on the 2nd dimension on the basis of their molecular weight. The gel or map provides a graphical representation of each protein after separation and hence they can be distinguished individually. However, the reproducibility of the results obtained through such an analysis has not been satisfactory. Till date there are constant efforts being made to improve the efficacy of this technique, such that a large number of proteins could be separated at the same time. The first 2-D separation which was carried out by using the electrophoresis buffer and starch gel, the improvements which followed gave rise to the foundation of modern day 2-D separation, which was combining two 1-d techniques involving separation on the basis of pH using isoelectric focusing (IEF) and using SDS-Page for separation on the basis of molecular weight after the samples have been prepared specifically using various reagents such as Urea (as a chaotrope to solubilise) and DTT (to break di-sulphide linkages without fragmentation into peptides), in a suitable buffer (3). Further, for certain segments of proteins which were hydrophobic in nature, like those found in the cell membrane, it was discovered that special reagents such as thiourea, sulfobetaine and tributyl phosphine which are classified as chaotropes, surfactants and reducing agents respectively, assisted their solubility during sample preparation before running them on the gel. Another notable extension of 2-D separation was the use of IPG strips, which had different pH gradients. These strips were made available commercially and drastically contributed to the convenience of the technique. Also, experiments were carried out using a number of such strips to increase the range of pH, hence successfully accommodating a large number of proteins(4). Nevertheless, such a method, although successful, was human-error prone and hence the results on the varied from each other in majority of cases. To overcome this, a number of replicates of the gel had to be prepared and therefore demanded a lot of labour. To overcome this barrier, the differential gel electrophoresis technique DIGE was developed. In this method, the proteins are labelled with fluorescent dyes prior to electrophoresis. The fluorophores are joined via an amide linkage to the amino acid lysine and therefore the proteins can be resolved together on the same gel through distinguished patterns of fluorescent emissions (5). Further advancement of the standard 2-D gel analysis was to incorporate automation to the technology, however the room for automation to analyse the results was limited due to the inability of a computer to distinguish between the different patterns. Differentiating a spot of protein on a gel, its intensity and to separate it from a background still remains an overwhelming task for the computer. The next step in proteome analysis is protein identification using mass spectrometry (MS). One of the most compelling problems of using MS to study biomolecules such as proteins was the inability to obtain ions of sufficiently large size which would effectively lead to their identification. Since the development of Electron Spray ionization and MALDI (Matrix assisted Laser Desorption Ionization) this drawback of MS was overcome and today the combination of these ion sources with different mass analysers e. g. MALDI-TOF/TOF, ESI Q-TOF and ESI triple quardrupoles are used widely in proteomics. Identification of a protein is carried out through a process referred to as peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). In this technique, proteins that have been separated on a 2-D gel are excised and digested into peptides using proteases such as trypsin. The digested peptides, when subjected to study in a MS, give a characteristic m/z spectrum. The protein can be indentified when this data correlates to the data in protein databases; compared using softwares based specific algorithms. However, to extrapolate a proteins role in metabolism, it is also necessary to identify how the protein is modified after translation. Post translation modification plays an important role in acting like a regulating switch; modifications such as phosphorylation play an important in processes such as cell signalling. The main drawback while analysing a phosphorylated protein through MS was its signal suppression. To rectify this issue, high performance separation techniques such as HPLC were conjugated with the MS; LC-MALDI-MS is an example of such a combination (6). Further extension of the protein mass fingerprinting was the development of shotgun proteomics, to specifically do away with the disadvantages of a standard 2-D gel analysis. This technique is based on separation of peptides obtained after protease digestion, using multidimensional chromatography. It is necessary that the two dimension of this multidimensional separation done using chromatography are orthogonal in nature, i. e. using two different properties of a protein similar to a 2-D gel separation which uses pI and mass. Separating proteins using reversed phase, based on hydrophobicity, and Strong cation exchange, using the charged state of the peptides is an example of separation in two dimensions. Although the PMF approach provided a successful identification process to recognize the proteins present in a proteome, it was also necessary to study the changes in protein expression in response to a stimulus. To achieve this, the technique call the ICAT was developed which protein mixtures from after isolation were modified such that they can differentiated on the basis of mass from one cellular location to another. In ICAT, this modification is done using a cysteine with an isotope labelled biotin tag. Today, the efforts to develop new technologies are directed towards automation in sample preparation and effective interfacing with other techniques. Interfacing has been achieved more successfully with ESI than MALDI owing to its ability of operating with a continuous flow of liquid (7). Sample from organisms contain thousands of proteins, to effectively separate certain important proteins such as disease biomarkers from this mixture, is a highly demanding task. Further, effective proteolytic digestion can be challenging when the proteins of interest are present in low quantities. Therefore, before a sample of protein can be effectively analysed there are a number of steps to be performed which are prone to human error and are laborious. The development of Micro-fluidic system as an interface with the mass spectrometer such as ESI provides the option of automating this process and hence making proteome analysis more effective less time-consuming. Therefore, such a chip based technology has a clear advantage over the traditionally used methods due its improved probability of obtaining the protein of interest, reduced consumption of reagents and accelerated reaction time. The micro fluidic chips can be directly coupled to an ESI- MS using a pressure driven or electro-osmotic flow. Thus, such a system where there is a direct interface is called an on-line setup. On the other hand, such a setup cannot be achieved in MALDI where a mechanical bridge is created between the micro-fluidic chip and the Mass spectrometer. The first step of a proteome analysis, i. e. sample purification is carried out using a hydrophobic membrane integrated into an inlet channel of a polyimide chip. Separation of proteins from the sample can be achieved either using a capillary electrophoresis (CE) or a liquid chromatographic (LC) method. CE is usually preferred over LC due as it provides a faster separation and can be coupled to an electric pump. Proteolytic digestion is carried out on the solid surface of the chips, where the enzymes are immobilized. Thus, such a chip provides a platform for the automation of the initial steps of a proteomic study, and more studies are still being performed to increase the efficacy of this approach (8). To conclude, over the last decade, there has been a rapid progress in the techniques used to study proteomics. The direction of progress has also shed a light on the importance of proteomics and the implications if would have in the coming years. Studies on evolution have benefitted a great deal with the development of techniques like ICAT which enhances quantitative and comparative studies of the different proteomes. In the field of medicine and drug discovery, the application of these techniques, paves the road for discovery of novel biomarkers for specific diseases in a quicker and less complicated manner. Further, it would also assist vaccine development by identifying specific antigens for a disease. The developments of micro-fluidic chips have opened the door for new diagnostics techniques by characterizing effectively the protein responsible for a diseased state. Such an approach has already been employed to study the proteins produced in the body in a cancerous state. Therefore, as more researchers and academics adapt these with these applications, many more improvements would soon evolve. References: 1. Anderson, L. , Matheson, A. and Steiner, S. (2000). â€Å"Proteomics: applications in basic and applied biology. † Current Opinion in Biotechnology Vol: 11:pp. 408–412. 2. Pazos, F. and Valencia, A. (2001). â€Å"Similarity of phylogenetic trees as indicator of protein protein interaction. † Protein Engineering Vol: 14: no 9: pp. 609-614. 3. Klose, J. (2009). From 2-D electrophoresis to proteomics. † Electrophoresis Vol: 30: pp. 142–149. 4. Herbert, B. (1999). â€Å"Advances in protein solubilisation for two-dimensional electrophoresis. † Electrophoresis Vol: 20: pp. 660- 663. 5. Alban, A. , David, S. , Bjorkesten, L. , Andersson, C. , Sloge, E. , Lewis, S. and Currie, I. (2003). â€Å"A novel experimental design for comparative two-dimensional gel analysis: Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis i ncorporating a pooled internal standard. Proteomics Vol: 3: pp. 36–44. 6. Reinders, J. , Lewandrowski, U. , Moebius, J. , Wagner, Y. and Sickmann, A. (2004). â€Å"Challenges in mass spectrometry based proteomics. † Proteomics Vol: 4: pp. 3686–3703. 7. Swanson, S. and Washburn, M. (2005). â€Å"The continuing evolution of shotgun proteomics. † Drug Discovery Today Vol: 10. 8. Lee, J. , Sopera, S. and Murraya, K. (2009). â€Å"Microfluidic chips for mass spectrometry-based proteomics. † Journal of Mass Spectrometry Vol: 44: pp. 579–593.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

elBulli Group Essay

1. a.Which elements of the elBulli experience create value for clients? The entire elBulli experience is valuable to the restaurant’s clients. The time and creativity the staff and chefs put into the elBulli experience make the customers feel valued. The elBulli dining experience is a unique and exclusive experience for customers. Customer’s feel that their time is well spent due to the quality of their dining experience at the restaurant. elBulli makes the customer feel sincerely appreciated by giving them at tour of the restaurant before their dining experience. â€Å"Upon arriving, patrons were greeted by the staff and taken on a tour of the kitchen in order to showcase the unusual equipment and innovative techniques used at elBulli. One patron—who described AdriaÌ€ as â€Å"Willy Wonka†Ã¢â‚¬â€wrote, â€Å"Lab-like and full of stainless steel; it was immaculate,† and went on to say that he â€Å"watched in awe as gourmet oompa loompas dilig ently prepared a dizzying array of dishes (Norton, 2009).† b. How does the elBulli example illustrate the difference between listening to customers and understanding customers? what does this distinction have to do with fostering continuous innovation in an organization? The elBulli team understood the importance of implementing the changes that meet customer expectation. They understood that it was important to customers to have new recipes each year. This is what keeps the customers satisfied and returning to elBulli despite the two-year wait for a reservation. Listening to customers does not always cause an action on the part of a company. The distinction between listening and understanding customers is what brings the company to action when considering new innovative ideas. 2. What are the most salient features of the creative process (continuous innovation) at elBulli? Chef Ferran Adria revolutionized elBulli into one of the top restaurants in the world by introducing his innovative philosophy that evolved from the simple question, â€Å"What is creativity?† The answer according to Chef Jacques Maximim, â€Å"To create is not to copy†, was simple yet had a profound impact on Adria. Adrian continually sought new techniques and new equipment to focus on the five senses to create dishes to make people think and feel when eating. His near-scientific approaches to the transformation of food gained popularity as an international movement referred to as â€Å"Molecular Gastronomy.† The innovation continued with the opening of an â€Å"R&D laboratory†, called El Taller. During the off season when elBulli was closed, Adria and his team devoted time to creating a full set of completely new recipes that were to be used the next year. The idea was the product of creativity; develop recipes, use them for one season and then discard them never to be used again. Adria found it to be crucial to the creative process at elBulli: â€Å"Everything at elBulli needs to be renewed for the next year. Imagine Pepsico having to renew its entire product line for next year . . . More techniques and concepts have been developed at elBulli over the past 15 years than in the world over the past century.† The creative process of developing new recipes and never using them again opened the door for one of Adria’s â€Å"side projects†. A General Catalog was developed to document all recipes from the previous year. The catalog gave a date and number for each recipe, Adria considered this a yearly â€Å"internal audit† of the creative process. Publishing his catalog served three purposes. First, it ensured he received proper credit for new creations. Second, it allowed the team to track trends in innovation. Third, it generated revenue. Overall, Chef Ferran Adria is one of the most creative minds in the restaurant business. His innovative work has revolutionized the industry and will forever be used as an example of how unique approaches to creativity can spawn international movements.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Beer in France Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Beer in France - Essay Example Denmark leads the continent with the highest number of alcohol users at 93% followed by Sweden and Netherlands at 90 and 88% respectively. On the other hand, the alcohol consumers were in Portugal at 58% with Italy and Hungary at 60% and 64% respectively, a trend that has remained intact since 2006 (Conibear, 32). Therefore, as the statistics above indicate, France is a moderate alcohol consumer, making it necessary for any marketers to understand beer or alcohol consumption trends in the country before implementing any marketing strategy. France portrays interesting dynamics with regard to beer and alcohol consumption at large. According to Conibear (34), there has been a drastic culture change in France, Italy and Spain about beer and alcohol consumption since the 1980s. Reports on beer consumption in France indicate an interesting trend with the average number of beer consumers decreasing significantly since the 1990s. For instance, Conibear (35) reports of a decline in the number of alcohol consumers above 15 years since the 1980s. The French beer consumption per capita in 1980 was 20, declining to 15.4 in 1990 and 14 by the year 2000 (Conibear 34). Age too is an influential factor with regard to beer intake across France. While 68% of persons above 50 years preferred wine, 29% of consumers between 14 and 29 years preferred beer, while port had more preference among women consumers (Conibear, 35). France is an average beer producer in Europe compared to other European countries. According to a beer statistics report, France produced 14,731,000 hectoliters of beer in 2009, 16,290,000 hectoliters and 15,910,000 hectoliters of beer in 2010 and 2011 respectively (Brewers of Europe, 4). The above figures indicate an average level production compared to Germany, which had over 95,000,000 hectoliters of beer in the three consecutive years. These data affirm that

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Stress and Law Enforcement Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Stress and Law Enforcement - Research Proposal Example In particular, police officers have families as well, they go through the same emotional process as other humans do (Goldberger & Breznitz, 1993), and thus, as stress has become one of the most common issues in the current society, police officers are no different, and there have been observations of adverse impact of such on them as well. RESEARCH STATEMENT In this regard, the researcher will focus on the following research statement: â€Å"To identify and analyze the factors of stress and their impact on police officers† PRELIMINARY LITERATURE REVIEW Brief analysis of literature (Constant, 1991) has indicated that stress has become one of the most common issues in human lives these days, and almost every human is now under the varied impact of stress due to various factors (Monat & Lazaruz, 1991). Experts (Franken, 1994) have specified that different levels of stress influence an individual differently; however, studies have indicated evident impact of stress on neurological , as well as psychological functions of individuals. In addition, stress has nowadays not remained a disease but a normal aspect of humans where every individual confronts and reacts to it in a diverse manner. Literature review has identified the Biopsychosocial Model of Stress (Bernard & Krupat, 1994) that has been very imperative in understanding different aspects of stress, and thus, it will be a part of this preliminary literature review. According to this model, stress exists with its three components: â€Å"an external component, an internal component, and the interrelationship between the external and the internal components† (Bernard & Krupat, 1994). Advocates of this model believe that diverse environmental events begins the waves of stress; however, these waves when come in contact with internal component causes a reaction in human body, and the then interrelationship causes different stress levels and diverse impact in individuals (Cannon, 1932). In 1967, psychiatr ists from the University of Washington (Holmes & Rahe, 1967) carried out a study to inquire about the impact of stress on causation of illnesses in humans. For this purpose, approximately five thousand patients participated in the study that enabled the researchers to come to forty-three causes of stress (Holmes & Rahe, 1967). However, experts now believe that the causes have jumped up to more than forty-three due to stressful lives of humans in today’s society. When it comes to law enforcement officers, undoubtedly, they face stressful situations more than any other professionals do due to the very nature of a police officer’s job. It has been observations that law enforcement officers although perform duties according to a schedule like other professions. However, unlike other professions, police officers cannot keep their work aside from their daily routines, and a horde of responsibilities always follows police officers at their homes as well that is one of the maj or causes of higher stress levels in law enforcement officers. One of the major reasons behind higher stress levels is that by becoming a law enforcement officer, the individual not only put his own life in danger but also of his family members and friends that has so far been the most common factors of huge stress levels in

Benefits Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Benefits - Research Paper Example tended sick and vacation days, medical plan, profit sharing, stock option plans, pensions, IRA, 401k, maternity leave, paternity leave, wellness programs, flexible time, and telecommuting. A trend in the medical plans companies offer to its employees is increased costs. In 2013 medical costs in the United States are expected to increase by 5% (Mercer, 2012). Companies have to keep track of the medical profession since the government in the future might implement a universal health plan that would put the burden of the nation’s medical costs on the government, instead of the private industry. In the 21st century employees care a lot about having a work-life balance. A benefit that can help employees achieve that goal is flexible time. Flexible time is a work arrangement that gives the employees the ability to set their own hours during the workweek. Telecommuting is also a hot trend. Telecommuting involves having employees perform work from their homes. Telecommuters communicate and upload work tasks by connecting to the company’s information system using the internet. Some important factors to consider when designing a benefit plan are composition of lab or force, size of workforce, and budget allocated for employee

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Is Childhood Discipline Effective Research Paper

Is Childhood Discipline Effective - Research Paper Example The essay would hereby initially trace the historical background of using corporal punishment, particularly smacking, as a tool for childhood discipline. In addition, the discourse would present a general overview of different positions or contentions on the issue of smacking as the most effective technique for childhood discipline. Finally, the concluding portion would highlight the crucial points discussed and present a speculation and recommendation on the most effective tool for childhood discipline in the future. Relevant History and Background The roots of corporal punishment could be traced from the earliest published article in a periodical, the San Francisco Call, dated March 23, 1893 entitled â€Å"Slap or Spank?: School Punishment Query in Alameda† where the School Board of Alameda supposedly sought to determine the manner by which parents would agree and stipulate the kind of chastisement to be used to discipline the children ( 1). At that time, the conte nts of the article generated different reactions and responses from school administrators, teacher and parents; with the final recommendation that â€Å"the general verdict of all those seen is to the effect that the spanking process is far superior to the regulation strap method, but all concurred in saying that the best way of all in such matters was to leave it entirely with the teachers, who should be kept within bounds regarding the severity of the punishment inflicted by rules laid down by the Board of Education† ( 1). Suffice it to say that even at the earliest published article on corporal punishment through spanking or smacking, the issue was elicited diverse and conflicting arguments. Some parents averred that they do not want their children to be spanked at all. Other parents support smacking on prescribed areas of the body, but never on the face. And still, surprisingly, one parent remarked that â€Å"’taken across the knee and spanked, by all me ans. That's the old way, and I have found it very efficient.’ And the obedience of the little ones clustered about her was good evidence of the truth of the statement† ( 1). These diverse reactions have evolved through centuries and until contemporary times, smacking continues to be a controversial issue. In current times, Gershoff and Larzelere disclosed that, â€Å"corporal punishment remains a widely used discipline technique in most American families, but it has also been a subject of controversy within the child development and psychological communities† (par. 1). The controversial nature is clearly depicted from the contradictory arguments advocated by parents, to wit: â€Å"The consultation document issued this month by the Department of Health on the physical punishment of children states clearly that ‘many parents would welcome support in learning effective measures of disciplining their child which do not involve physical punishmentâ₠¬â„¢ while adding that ‘there may still be occasions when parents †¦ may consider it appropriate to discipline a child through physical punishment’† (Waterston 261). In this regard, parents, social workers, health professionals and policymakers all provide different perspectives on the subject of corporal punishme

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Laws Governing Labor and Employment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Laws Governing Labor and Employment - Essay Example Furthermore, the company has to have more than 50 employees within a radius of 75 miles. The regulation also requires that employers: Protect their employees from any form of retaliation by an employer for such rights. Guard employee benefits while they are gone for leave. All employee benefits before they went on leave have to be reinstated. Protect the employee from being denied their right to go on leave under the act. Offer the exact health insurance benefits, which have to include company contributions to premiums that would be awarded should the employee go on leave. The employees on leave have to come back to a similar position they worked in before they went on leave. If the exact position is not available, then the employer has to offer a position that is equal in pay, responsibility, and benefits. Lastly, they have to be given occasional leave should they face any serious ill health, or that of a family condition, which include intermittent leave for appointments to the doc tor for treatment, therapies or other serious conditions (Goldman & Sigmond, 2010). Non-eligible types of leave and workers These regulations do not apply to: Workers in companies with less than 50 employees; nonetheless, the threshold does not apply to local educational and employer agencies. Part-time workers with less than 1,250 hours within a paid vacation and the 12 months period; Employees in need of leave to take care for elderly parents who are not parents; Employees needing time to recover from common illnesses like common cold or flu. Workers in need of regular medical checkups The employee in situation A has toiled for the company for at least two years. He took and 11 week leave to be with his spouse who had given birth to twins prematurely. So far, he has not broken the rules governing the employment law. Firstly, he has gone for 11 weeks of the maximum 12 and has been working for over two years. However, there is not provision for someone to be paid. Therefore, the new manager is not forced to release the employee’s salary for the time he was away. His spouse had given birth to twins prematurely, which is catered for in the AFMLA. Nonetheless, the new manager has not infringed the right to leave of the gentleman. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) The ADEA bars discrimination against employees 40 years of age and more. Employers are not allowed to: Snub, fire, or discharge a person because of the certain terms, compensation, or employment privileges in view of their individual age (Miller, Jentz, & Jentz, 2009). To lessen the wage rate of any worker to comply with the above regulations; To classify, isolate, or limit employees in ways that would deny or deprive the individuals of employment avenues because of their age. Furthermore, it will be unlawful for employment agencies to refuse to discriminate against any person because of their age. There are also other laws tackling labor organizations; Labor organizations ar e not allowed: To expel or exclude any person from its membership because of age; To classify, segregate, limit, classify or refuse to employ any person in ways that would deny employment opportunities. To try or cause any employer to discriminate against employees in violations of the regulation; In situation B, the employee in question is 68 years of age and nearing his retirement. However, he has worked for the company

Monday, September 23, 2019

The principal powers available to the courts in England & Wales in Essay

The principal powers available to the courts in England & Wales in connection with statutory interpretation - Essay Example The literal rule means that the words in the statue are given their ordinary and natural meaning .I t is supposed that if some extraordinary meaning was to be given to a particular word, the lawmakers would have specified it in the statue and if they have not; then the ordinary meaning of the word should be followed. The 18th and 19th century saw a trend towards the strict implementation of the literal rule for the statutory interpretation. This was the era in which the supremacy of the Parliament had been established and courts were reluctant to give any other meaning to law other than the one which had been explicitly stated by the parliamentarians. In the Sussex Peerage Case of 1844 the court made the observation that if the words of the statue are precise and unambiguous; then the courts do not need to interpret them in any other way or take a broad view of the words used in the statue. The court observed in the above-mentioned case that the words of the parliament give the best indication of the intention of framing the statue, no further exploration of the intent is required by the courts of law.1 The literal rule has been hailed by many jurists as well as the law commission. This rule is said to have encouraged precision in drafting of the statues. It also ensures that law making remains the preserve of the elected representatives of the people and the courts are not able to give a new direction or definition to the law. The judge it is argues should not be given the flexibility to take a broad view of the law as it is not their function to make laws. However the law commission of 1969 was critical of the courts for relying too heavily on the literal rule2. The commission observed that there are many limitations of language which should not become the ground for denial of justice. The judges will be abdicating their responsibilities if they were to give more weight age to the words rather than to the intent with which the law has been framed. The Golden Rule If after applying the literal rule of statutory interpretation the courts arrive at a result which is absurd or arbitrary, the courts can substitute a new meaning in place of the absurd result. This is called as the Golden rule of the statutory interpretation. The Golden rule of the statutory interpretation ensures that the intent of the law makers is given precedence over the actual words which are used in the statue. The Adler vs. George case of 1964 is considered as a classic example of this rule’s interpretation.3 This case was concerned with the conviction of a person under the Official Secrets Act of 1920 in which he was charged with creating nuisance and hindering the work of officials in the Royal Air Force Station. The official secrets acts said that a person who creates hindrance in the ‘vicinity’ of a Government installation is liable for punishment. The defendant claimed that he

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Integrative Nature of Psychology and Music Essay Example for Free

The Integrative Nature of Psychology and Music Essay Creativity, while it is recognized and valued by many, means different things to different people.   Artists, musicians, and poets are considered to be creative individuals because their products are creative.   Art works are valued for their novelty, beauty, uniqueness, and a host of other qualities that are considered to reflect creativity.   Scientists who discover a new medicine or cure are considered creative.   Young children who have created a finger painting or a poem are praised for their creativity.   Often proud parents will even excuse perverse behavior traits in their offspring by saying, â€Å"he is just being ‘creative’. †Ã‚   Creativity is a part of everyday life as much as eating is.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, creativity is a concept that is difficult to define with specific measures and parameters.   For the purposes of this discussion, the author provides theories on creativity in terms of psychological concepts.   Freud’s (1952) psychoanalytic technique seems to be the prerogatives of art.   The creation of a meaning for a patient’s random acts resembles literary creation.   In both psychiatric interpretation and artistic creativity meaning does not emerge fully clothed out of the raw material of incident and language.   Rather, from a first experience significance is gradually inferred and elaborated by a process of free association.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   What links psychoanalysis and creativity is the notion of symbolic function.   Ricouer (1970) speaks of the symbolic function as meaning something other than what is said and therefore he defines a symbol as â€Å"a double meaning linguistic expression that requires an interpretation† (p. 9).   An interpretation is seen as a work of understanding that aims at deciphering symbols. Psychoanalysis is first and foremost a form of interpretation, hermeneutic that arrives at an understanding of the facts of mental life by regarding both dreams and neurotic symptoms as symbols to be analyzed.   Freud’s interpretation of dreams reveals the dynamics of the mental processes, the â€Å"strategies of man’s deepest desires and instincts†, and provides the paradigm for the analysis of all men’s cultural activities (Ricoeur, 1970, p. 162).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For Freud the dream symbolism is not merely one device of the dreamwork; but rather provides the dreamwork with the material for condensation, displacement and dramatization.   These devices then, are all methods of disguise clothing the unconscious symbolic meaning.   This universal symbolism is not limited to dreams, but is to be found in fairy-tales, myths, legends, folklore, and also underlies all art, including music.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to Dalhaus (1978), absolute music is historically rooted in the idea of an unspeakable sublime, in the idea that â€Å"music expresses that words are not even capable of stammering† (p. 63).   As a performer, composing or listening to some Western music is an experience of the sublime.   As with Freud’s dream symbolism, every music symbolizes something that requires interpretation.   Music, through which some of feelings of the musicians are expresses, is essentially a system of symbols.   Each symbol is equivalent to an event or an object; when these symbols are put together they give us a kind of an interpretation of the world. According to Langer (1957), the world of sentiments and emotions could also be expressed in a symbolic manner.   Music is, therefore, an alternative means of symbolic expression.   Elements of music, just as with dreams, do not contain in themselves fixed references to things, but rather a flexible system of symbols capable of expressing various complex feelings.   Through music, a composer can express ambivalent and contradictory feelings simultaneously.   With dreams which, as Freud explains, are disguised fulfillment of repressed wishes or desires of the dreamer.   Since the instincts hide themselves in dreams, interpretation is necessary to reveal them.   The same thing is true with music.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   To illustrate this, Kivy (1991) Bach’s Prelude in C Minor from the first book of the Well-Tempered Clavier.   In referring to this piece he gives an â€Å"autumnal† interpretation, â€Å"the rustling sixteenth-notes figure, in both the right and left hands, that pervades the entire piece, represents the rustling of the dry autumn leaves in the cold October wind† (p. 206-207).   What is relevant is the meaning of the listener fins departing from musical experience and musical analysis.   Or at least that is what the listener thinks he does.   Perhaps this is the point which Kivy describes when the listener who obtains pleasure from absolute music without needing free associations.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   On the most basic level, the interpretation of art is analogous to the interpretation of dreams, for art is based on the same universal symbolism of the unconscious.   The first assumption of a Freudian aesthetic then is that it is possible to analyze a work of art in order to reveal its hidden motivations in the same way as we unlock the secrets of the dream.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Weiss has extended and placed more emphasis on Freud’s analysis of the condensation of psychic energy that gives a minimum of pleasure in wit, and discovered that the spectator gets pleasure, at least in regarding a painting, from two kinds of perceptual economies, one quantitative and one qualitative.   The pleasure of perceptual economy which form affords is the pleasure of overcoming repression of archaic visual modes by sharing in the artist’s childish and primitive visualization (Shapiro, 1966).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   However, this pleasure does have the more noteworthy effect of contributing, in the form of a bonus, to the erotic, aggressive and cynical tendencies of the mind.   That is, the technique of wit, the use of puns, strange and funny combinations and the like, seduces us to enjoy those sadistic or obscene tendencies whose expression would repel us if it were not combined with the skillful technical creation of the joke itself.   In the same way, all the aesthetic pleasure we gain from the work of the imaginative writer is of the same type as this ‘forepleasure’.   Therefore, the true enjoyment of art proceeds from the release of unconscious tensions in our minds.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to Freud (1958), †¦the capacity of certain art forms to express and elicit emotions directly, that is, without reference to representational or symbolic images of drive related objects.   This is expressed in the idea that art forms are isometric with the forms of feeling and mood. (p. 11) According to this view, significant content could include those art elements and forms capable of effecting instinctual discharge through the relatively immediate arousal of affective states.   This seems to be particularly true of music.   The question – whether is it the work or the emotions the work arouses in us that conveys the powerful meaning of music – by saying that our emotions by themselves are the result of our interaction with the music.   They are the byproduct of the musical experience.   Music seems to create similar emotions and furthermore a similar meaning for different people.   People can all have different ways to express our subjective feelings and meanings of the music but at the same time relate to an object that has its own characteristics. Another such psychological concept is the psychology of perception.   The most influential theory of perception in the first half of the twentieth century was developed by the gestalt psychologists Kohler and Koffka.   In a series of experiments, they were able to demonstrate that inherent in the process of seeing is a natural tendency to bisect the visual field into two distinct areas, a significant figure and an insignificant ground.   They also maintained that it is impossible to hold within a single sweep of vision figure and ground simultaneously, focusing on one automatically excludes the other.    Even when perceiving the famous Rubin profiles, a series of diagram whose meaning is ambiguous because figure and ground are equally significant, attention is forced to centre on either the figure, so that a certain diagram will appear as the outline of two vases, or on the ground, in which case the same diagram appears as two faces in profile.   The apparent ambiguity in these visual counterchanges arises from the fact that either the figure or ground represents a coherent object but attention cannot perceive both meaning at the same time.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This mutually exclusive, ‘either-or’ structure of attention is found in aural phenomena as well, particularly in the perception of music in which a clear melodic line is distinguished from the harmonic matrix of chords in which it is situated.   Finally, the significant figures or forms spotlighted by attention tend to possess the properties of simplicity, wholeness, and coherence while at the same time eliminating any vague, incoherent or inarticulate structures from our perception (Ehrenzweig, 1965).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Through the study of philosophers, theorists, and musicians, aesthetics is no longer simply a â€Å"theory of nice feelings† (as Hegel put it) but a complex philosophy of art: it involves interpretation, criticism and reflection upon works of art.   A work of art, such as a symphony, has an existence, a history and a place that constitute it as the object of the aesthetic experience.   Having said that, psychoanalysis presents a new way of looking at things – not only at music or art.   It is in this way the departure point for an aesthetic revolution, in the sense of a new treatment of what we hear (and see) in the world.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Musical works have represented an enormous value for each culture.   In psychoanalytic terms we can say that music generates a jouissance, which for many musicians and non-musicians alike becomes on occasion an experience of the sublime. References: Dalhaus, C. (1978). The idea of absolute music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ehrenzweig, A. (1965). The psychoanalysis of artistic vision and hearing. London. Freud, S. (1952). A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York. Freud, S. (1958). The Moses of Michelangelo. In S. Freud (Ed.), On creativity and the unconscious. New York. Kivy, P. P. (1991). Sound and semblance. Cornell University Press. Langer, S. (1957). Philosophy in a new key. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Ricoeur, P. (1970). Freud and philosophy. New Haven. Shapiro, M. (1966). Leonardo and Freud: An art historical study. Journal of the History of Ideas, 17(2).

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The Timeless Theme Of Luther John Osborne

The Timeless Theme Of Luther John Osborne John Osbornes Luther, which debuted in London in 1961, is a drama with a historical setting and a timeless theme. As Osborne told an interviewer in 1961 (as quoted in Alan Carters John Osborne), I wanted to write a play about religious experience and various other things, and this happened to be the almost incidental. The play focuses on Martin Luther, the sixteenth-century monk who publicly spoke out against age-old practices and beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church, thus beginning the Protestant Reformation. Osborne, however, focuses on Martin Luthers intensely personal reaction to his religion, his faith, and his God; the transformations he wrought in Europe exist more as an aside in this drama. As he did in earlier works, such as his groundbreaking Look Back in Anger, Osborne profiles an individual in conflict with authority, which in Martin Luthers case is the vast authority of the Roman Catholic Church. In posting his 95 theses, Luther risked inevitable excommunication and brought the wrath of the highest church leaders, including Pope Leo X, upon him. He did this despite his uncertainty about what would come next, for, as he tells Cajetan at the Diet of Worms (a city in Germany) about the Roman Catholic Church, A withered arm is best amputated, an infected place is best s coured out, and so you pray for healthy tissue and something sturdy and clean that was crumbling and full of filth. Osborne dramatically depicts how Martin Luther followed his convictions in the face of great doubts, and so transformed Christianity forever. Plot overview Act 1 Luther is set in Germany during the 1500s and follows several important events in the life of Martin Luther, the religious reformer, instigator of the Protestant Reformation, and founder of the Lutheran faith. Act 1 opens at the convent of the Augustinian Order of Eremites in Erfurt, Germany, in 1506. In the presence of the other members of the convent and his disapproving father, Luther is received into the order. After the oath has been sworn, Luthers father, Hans, complains of his sons choice. Later, after his father has left, the monks gather for their meal; Luther has the job of waiting on the others. A reader lectures the men on their duties to God, doing His good works, and the rules they must follow. The men then make their confessions, but while most of the monks confess to trifling sins, Luther continually castigates himself harshly, calling himself a worm, and sharing visions that are filled with images of sex and violence. At the end, Luther has a fit and has to be dragged away by two other monks. Scene 2 takes place one year later as Luther is about to perform his first mass. Beforehand, he talks with Brother Weinand about his doubts, revealing that he still feels envy and impatience, and that he believes that God hates him. Weinand says it is not God who is angry with Luther but Luther who is angry with Him. Scene 3 focuses on the meeting between Luther and his father, Hans, following Luthers mass. Hans still cannot understand why Luther would give up earthly pleasures such as fortune and family life to become a monk. Hans suggests that Luther only became a monk through fear, the result of a promise made during a thunderstorm. Act 2 Act 2 opens at the marketplace in JÃ »terbog in 1517, where John Tetzel is selling indulgences. Scene 1 is Tetzels monologue exhorting people to buy the indulgences and ensure their swift assent to heaven. Scene 2 shifts to the Eremite Cloister in Wittenberg, where Luther talks with his mentor, Johann Von Staupitz. Through the conversation, Luthers scholarly success (he has earned a doctorate in theology) is revealed, as are his continuing doubts and discontent. Luther has become obsessed with the rules of his order, according to Von Staupitz, because it protects him from admitting that he cannot submit to anyones authority but his own. Stauptiz points out that Luther demands from himself an impossible standard of perfection and notes that he has been unable to keep all his vows but that God should still grant him salvation because of his love of Christ. Von Staupitz also talks about the Dukes annoyance with Luthers sermons against indulgences. Scene 3 shows Luther arriving with his 95 theses at the Castle Church in Wittenberg. In a monologue, he gives a sermon to the crowds, telling the common people there is no security in the purchase of indulgences and repudiating the idea that doing good works leads to personal salvation. The works are just if the man is just, he says. If a man doesnt believe in Christ, not only are his sins mortal, but his good works. Scene 4 takes place at the Fugger Palace in Augsburg in October 1518 as Cajetan, a church leader, confronts Luther about his actions. Cajetan explains to Luther the popes three demands: he must retract his sermons, not spread his ideas in the future, and stop causing disturbances among the church. Despite Cajetan telling Luther that his actions threaten the unity of Christendom, Luther will not retract. Cajetan has no choice but to refer this difficult matter to the pope. Scene 5 takes place in a hunting lodge in northern Italy in 1519. Pope Leo X reads a letter he has received from Luther in which Luther says he will not retract his theses. The pope sends a letter to Cajetan that excommunicates Luther and banishes him from Germany. Scene 6 takes place at the Elster Gate in Wittenberg in 1520. In this brief monologue, Luther reveals that he has been served excommunication papers. He burns this paper, called the papal bull. Act 3 Act 3 opens on April 18, 1521, at the Diet of Worms, where Germanys Christian princes have called Luther to ask if he will retract the beliefs he espouses in his books dissenting with church doctrine. Luther explains that his writings fall into three categories: the first deal with certain values of faith and morality that both his supporters and his enemies agree are harmless; the second group attack the power that has tyrannized Germany; the third criticizes the enemies of his religion, even if they are holy individuals, and defends the teaching of Christ. Luther declares that he cannot retract any of these works, for to retract the first group would be to condemn the things that those in favor and those against Luther agree upon; to retract the second group would be to invite more tyranny on Germany; to retract the third group would be to allow such situations to continue. Luther asks if anyone can expose his errors through Scripture; if this can be done, he will retract his books . Von Eck refuses his proposal. Do reasons have to be given to anyone who cares to ask a question? he asks. Why, if anyone who questioned the common understanding of the church on any matter he liked to raise, and had to be answered irrefutably from the Scriptures, there would be nothing certain or decided in Christendom. Von Eck further points out that Luthers disobedience threatens the stability of the church by casting doubt upon it, yet Luther refuses to recant. Scene 2 takes place in Wittenberg in 1525. Luther and the Knight speak of the Peasants Movement, a revolt which had begun the previous year and which was quickly suppressed. The peasants had been encouraged by Luthers ideas of independence, but the Knights speech reveals that Luther opposed the peasants. The Knight tells Luther that he could have brought freedom and order if he had stood on their side, but Luther explains his lack of involvement because [T]heres no such thing as an orderly revolution. The Knight accuses Luther of siding with the princes and killing the spirit of independence he had helped foster. Luther, growing angry, says that the peasants deserved to die because they ignored authority. At end of the scene, with the Knight watching, Luther marries former nun Katherine Von Bora. Scene 3, the final scene of the play, returns to the Eremite Cloister, twenty-four years after Luther joined the order. It is no longer a monastery but Luthers home, where he lives with his wife and six children. Von Staupitz joins them for a meal, and the two men discuss all that has happened since Luther posted his theses: the development of Germany and the German language, and the accessibility of Christianity to the common people. After hearing Luthers repudiation of the Peasants War, Von Staupitz asks Luther not to believe that he is the only one who is ever right. Von Staupitz departs, and Katherine enters the room, carrying their young son, Hans, and Luther takes him from her. THEMES Themes Loss of Faith Martin Luthers religious crisis-and the resulting Protestant Reformation-stemmed from his loss of faith in the teachings and practices of the church. Osborne does not analyze the social, political, and economic causes of the religious reformation that swept Europe in the 1500s; instead, he focuses on Luthers personal struggle. Luther takes action, posting the 95 theses, that makes him the first protestant, but even before this, his doubt is evident. The man who joins the monastery is prone to despair, histrionics, and self-castigation. His anxiety arises from his uncertainty about the vows that he upholds. Eventually, Luthers doubts about Roman Catholic doctrine, as well as his disgust for the moral laxity of church leaders, lead him to reject both. Yet, even when doing so, Luther is not certain of his actions. As he reveals to Von Staupitz decades later, he waited a day to answer the questions posed at the Diet of Worms because he was not sure: I listened for Gods voice, but all I c ould hear was my own. It is important to remember, however, that Luthers rejection of the church does not equate with a rejection of God. When called to the Diet of Worms to recant his beliefs, Luther refuses to do so because his conscience is captured by Gods own word. Upon receiving the papal bull excommunicating him, Luther asks God for help. I rely on no man, only on you, he says. My God, my God do you hear me? Are you dead? Are you dead? No, you cant die. You can only hide yourself, cant you? Luthers doubts in Gods ability to help him in his isolation are clearly expressed here as are his belief in Gods eternal presence. By the end of the play, which takes place toward the end of Luthers life, Luther demonstrates far less doubt about his relationship with God. In sharing the story of Isaac and Abraham, he emphasizes mans obedience to God. In a conversation with Von Staupitz regarding the rebellion of the Peasants War, he declares, for there is no power but of God: the powers th at be are ordained of God. Whosoever therefore resistant that power resistant the ordinance of God. In these words, Luther implies more certainty than in previous years, for if he had actually showed the obedience that he exalts, he never would have rebelled against the church and its practices and leaders. Father-Son Relationships Martin Luthers relationships with the various father figures in his life each present their own set of complexities. His attitude toward these ties is best summed up by his words in act 1: I suppose fathers and sons always disappoint each other. His father, Hans, is a driving force in his life. The play suggests that one reason that Luther became a monk was to get away from his fathers domination. Hans wanted his son to become a lawyer or a magistrate, anything but a priest, a profession that takes him away from the material world. Hans believes that his son chose to become a monk because he has given up and needs to run away from life. Luther, however, tells his father, All you want is me to justify you, clearly showing that he feels like a pawn for his father, one with the purpose of fulfilling the older mans expectations. This relationship remains difficult throughout Luthers life; as he reveals to Von Staupitz in the final scene, He [Hans] was never pleased about anything I did. . . . Only when Katie and I were married and she got pregnant. Then he was pleased. This revelation suggests that Hans is also concerned with the continuation of his family line, which can only be carried on by Luther since his other two sons died in the plague. Luthers relationship with his spiritual Father is as difficult if not more so. At various points throughout the play, Luther entreats God for guidance and casts himself as a helpless child. After his excommunication, Luther sees himself as a lost child, a stillbirth, and pleads with God to [B]reathe into me . . . yes, my mighty fortress, breathe into me. Give me life, oh Lord. Give me life. In this instance, God takes on the role of the father, creating the son. At other times, Luther rebels against God, much as he rebels against his earthly father. To this Luther, God is an angry being, one who demanded my love and made it impossible to return it. Another father figure exists for Luther: Von Staupitz. Like a father, the older theologian tries to set Luther on an easier path than the one he consistently seeks for himself. By the plays final scene, Luther openly refers to Von Staupitz as Father and asks questions that children are likely to ask of their parents, such as Are you pleased with me? The play ends on yet another representation of the father-son relationship: Luther is holding his young son, appropriately named Hans. Resistance to Authority As Luther resists the authority of his father, he also resists the authority of the church but with far greater consequences. The church leaders, parroting the beliefs of the pope-the highest religious authority expect complete allegiance; Luther must not question church doctrine. I ask you: says Von Eck at the Diet of Worms, dont throw doubt on the most holy, orthodox faith . . . This faith has been defined by sacred councils, and confirmed by the church. It is your heritage, and we are forbidden to dispute it by the laws of the emperor and the pontiff. While in earlier scenes, Luther has been seen adhering too strictly to the rules of his order, as Von Staupitz points out, in the words of Herbert Goldstone writing in Coping with Vulnerability, Luther actually ridicules authority to set himself up as the only authority capable of determining his relationship to God. In doing so, Luther challenges the church hierarchy that forces regular people to deal with God through the mediation of a priest; in the case of a priest, the pope and other high church officials are the mediators. In his letter to Pope Leo X, Luther shows his own sense of self-importance when it comes to religious matters. Luther alone dares protest the complaints that the German people hold about the avarice of the priests. While everyone else is too filled with terror at the popes reaction, Luther strives to protect the glory of Christianity by publishing his 95 theses on the Castle Church in Wittenberg. And now, most holy father, the whole world has gone up in flames, he writes, but, a mere few lines later, Luther asks the pope for his help because Luther is far too insignificant to appear before the world in a matter as great as this. Luthers words are seemingly disingenuous, particularly so for a man of his superior intellect and sensitivity, as he has recently elected him as the one person to stand up and defend God and His purity. Luther grows more conservative in his views, particularly b y 1525, when he critiques the failed Peasants War, which his religious rebellion helped spark. However, he still flouts the authority of the clergy by marrying, notably, a former nun. He also nostalgically looks back on his former actions, telling his young son, You should have seen me at Worms. . . . I have come to set a man against his father, I said, and they listened to me. STYLE Epic Theater Most critics agreed that Luther aimed at being epic drama along the lines of the work of German playwright Bertolt Brecht. Epic theater is a form of drama that presents a series of loosely connected scenes. Often, a narrator figure will address the audience with analysis or argument. As practiced by Brecht, epic theater sought to use alienating effects to cause the audience to think objectively, not emotionally, about the play and its characters. In technique, Luther shows a strong Brechtian influence, notably, that of his play The Life of Galileo. Like Brechts drama, Luther is a series of short scenes, most of which could function as stand-alone units. The stage decorations, which Osborne clearly describes, are evocative and imbued with symbolism and iconography. A choral figure, in this case the Knight, announces the time and setting of each scene and narrates background details particularly concerning Luthers role in the Peasants War. Osborne, like Brecht, also wanted to portray contemporary social problems and realities on stage; in Luther, the title character is the Angry Young Man of 1960s British society, a young man who feels rage at the established sociopolitical system in which he lives. While many critics saw Luther as epic theater, scholar Simon Trussler staunchly disagreed with this assessment. In his Plays of John Osborne, applying Brechts criteria that epic theater appeals less to the feelings than to the spectators reason, he contended that the play is dramatic rather than epic, for Luthers primary appeal is indeed emotional rather than rational. Symbolism Perhaps the most notable symbolism that Osborne uses in Luther is Luthers poor physical health. He suffers from seizures, insomnia, boils, and chronic constipation. His pains express his mental battles, and his inability to purge himself bodily represents his difficulty breaking free from the churchs beliefs. Luther himself views his religious upheavals in terms of the physical body. For example, in his discussion with Von Staupitz, just before he posts his 95 theses, Luther likens himself to a ripe stool in the worlds straining anus, and at any moment were about to let each other go. When he finally formulates his own doctrine (that salvation is based only on faith in God and not on good works), it is while experiencing another bout of constipation; with the realization that The just shall live by faith, Luther recalls, [M]y pain vanished, my bowels flushed and I could get up. On another level, however, as Alan Carter pointed out in John Osborne, To show Martins constipation, his in digestion, his excessive perspiration, is to show him as an ordinary human being. A man who would appeal to the earthy German peasantry, and who would be able to incite them to action. He is a direct contrast to the effeminate, sophisticated Latin churchmen of the period. This common folk appeal is important for, as the Knight points out, Luther helped the people begin to believe in an image as Christ as a man as we are . . . that His supper is a plain meal like their own . . . a plain meal with no garnish and no word. Narrative Luther does not have a strong narrative drive in the traditional sense; encompassing several decades, it does not tell the complete story behind Luthers protest. Alan Carter wrote in John Osborne that because Osborne is weakest as a story-teller, he makes the play resemble a medieval historical pageant, full of vivid theatrical moments. The play in its entirety shows explicit change in Luthers development of a more personal relationship with God and implicit change in the references to the transformation his beliefs have brought to Germany. The narrative drive focuses more on Luthers interior battles with his own lack of faith than exterior battles with church leaders. CRITICAL OVERVIEW Critical overview Luther was Osbornes second consecutive historical play, and English audiences who had, for the most part, failed to respond to the first (A Subject of Scandal and Concern) were very curious to see how it would fare. For the most part, it was declared a success by the public and the critics alike, creating as much of an impact as Look Back in Anger had. Kenneth Tynan, writing for The Observer (quoted in Alan Carters John Osborne), described the play as the most eloquent piece of dramatic writingto have dignified out theatre since Look Back in Anger. While some reviewers contended that the play was not historical enough, other critics welcomed Osbornes more universal portrayal of Luther as a rebel to whom audiences of any period could relate. Carter, as well, wrote in his study John Osborne that while Luther had a historical setting, its theme was quite modern. In 1963, Luther went on to a welcoming reception in the United States, where it was widely hailed and appreciated for its univ ersal themes. It won several awards, including a Tony for best play of the 1963-64 season. Luther also solidified Osbornes international reputation. Since its debut, and as Osbornes stature continued to rise, many scholars have examined Luther with regard to how it fit in with themes and characters in the playwrights body of work. Herbert Goldstone wrote in Coping with Vulnerability that Luther presents still another variation on success failure as seen in one of Osbornes earlier plays, The Entertainer. He also compares Luther to Jimmy Porter, the hero of Osbornes pivotal Look Back in Anger, in both characters need to be different from others. However, Goldstone also pointed out that, unlike Osbornes earlier characters, Luther attempts to cope with his feeling of helplessness and despair in realizing himself . . . openly and forcefully, both privately and publicly. Katharine J. Worth wrote in her 1963 article The Angry Young Man that Luther was also the first of Osbornes heroes to b e shown in conflict with his intellectual equals. She forecast that the play marks a new phase in Osbornes dramatic art. Its increased range and flexibility suggest interesting possibilities for his future development. In 2001, Luther was re-produced on the London stage; even forty years later, Osbornes words were stirring and powerful. This is a big, angry, eloquent play, wrote John Peter in the Times (London). Seeing it again after so long, what impresses me is how deeply Osborne had immersed himself in his subject without making his play ponderous. Like their predecessors, several critics also noted the timelessness of the piece, which showed that Osborne was, in the words of Michael Billington writing in the Guardian, far more than a chronicler of contemporary anger.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Relationship Between Piggy And Ralph :: essays research papers

Growing relationship between Piggy and Ralph In order to complete this assignment one must look at too distinct characters. One is Piggy. Piggy represents the law and order of the adult world. He is the superego, the part of man’s personality, which attempts to act according to an absolute set of standards. Throughout the novel, Piggy attempts to condition the island society to mirror the society they all lived in when they were in England. Piggy’s continual references to his auntie demonstrate this philosophy. He tries to pull Ralph towards the reason-oriented side of human nature. The Other Character in the combination is Ralph. Ralph, a tall, blond, twelve-year-old boy, establishes himself as the leader of the boys when he blows the conch shell to call the first assembly. Throughout the story, he struggles to maintain order, forced to compete with Jack for respect. The relationship between Ralph in Piggy is somewhat complicated. Lord of the Flies a novel by William Golding begins with these two characters. One the first several pages the initial interaction between piggy and Ralph is described. At first Piggy is very eager to see that another boy beside himself has survived the plane crash. Piggy is very enthusiastic to introduce himself and get to know Ralph. In fact he is too enthused. This introduction partially alienates Piggy. However Ralph notices that Piggy is a competent individual and may be of value.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Throughout the book Ralph is mean to Piggy. This comes in part from his security with him. Ralph knows that he is Piggy’s only defense. Piggy is described as an outsider on page 21 when the narrator says â€Å"For a moment the boys were a closed circuit of sympathy with Piggy on the outside...† Ralph, nonetheless, does start relying on Piggy’s policies. One of these policies is building shelters so that they would be protected. Ralph also likes Piggy’s idea of using the conch shell to call meetings. Ralph and Piggy are also exposed to the dark side together this brings them closer. This is portrayed on page 152, â€Å"Piggy and Ralph, under the threat of the sky, found themselves eager to take a place in this demented but partly secure society. They were glad to touch the brown backs of the fence that hemmed in the terror and made it governable.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Essay --

Sigrid Axelsson SP3A Philosophy 1 Philosophy of language; Essay Question # 4 This essay will specifically try to answer question number; 4) What is the meaning of ‘in the head’ (ideational)? How does Wittgenstein’s beetle box through experiment suggest otherwise? The meaning â€Å"in the head† is ideational and the Wittgenstein beetle box theory supports that everything is created in the head and is ideational, but not that everyone has the same concept of reality. Is the meaning â€Å"in the head† (ideational)? Ideational is when an idea pops up in one’s head and a light bulb is switched on within the person who has the ideational moment in the mind. Yes, â€Å"in the head† is referring to the ideational theories where a sentence or a word is, as an example â€Å"in the head† is referring to the metal image of the inside of the head that is created in the brain when the word or sentence of â€Å"in the head† is seen and heard by the human being. This is seen with Locke’s explanation, that when the word red is seen or heard, the brain portrays redness as the metal image within the brain, and th...

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Myth of the American Dream :: ESL Essays

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Striving for success nobody thinks that he follows somebody’s well planned way. A single person or a small group does not create the notion of success, but it is created by our whole society. The myth of instant wealth is one of the most popular myths society uses. In fact society uses the hope of instant wealth to make people work harder. The fact that they do not have a real chance of obtaining that wealth by competing in the economic system stays invisible to the most of people.     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When we imagine a successful person, we see a person, who is working on some company and is busy working all the time. This person has a nice car and beautiful apartment or house, where he does not spend much time because he is so busy. We get this impression since we were born. Movies, magazines, and news – everything supports this notion of a successful person.     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Interesting thing is that notion of success did not change very much since the beginning of last century. There happened some variations but the idea stayed the same: working hard will bring you to the top of the society circle. This idea became very popular in the end of eighteen hundreds thanks to the stories, written by Horatio Alger. In spite of similarity of all his books, his works had an edition of hundred thousand copies. Simple idea of getting into upper class circles starting from the very down, was accepted by society as a model of success achievement. People have believed that if they will work hard than they can achieve success.     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Richard Hunter, main character of the book â€Å"Ragged Dick† has been a typical example of American notion of success. According to this book everybody can became well recognized and financially prosperous if they would work hard and show their merit. Dick, â€Å"a young gentleman on the way to fame and fortune,† as his friend Fosdick from the story â€Å"Ragged Dick† describes him in the end of the story, climbs on the social ladder, starting from the very bottom. Being absolutely illiterate and having no money in the beginning, Dick gets into business circle of people, by working hard and showing his merit. Why did this story become so popular in the end of eighteenth century? People always need hope and this story gave hope to everyone. If person from the lowest class of society could get into the high class then everyone else was able to do the same.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The Three Rs

The Three R’s Using the three R’s- reduce, reuse and recycle help the world to cut down on the amount of waste being thrown away. They conserve natural resources, landfill space and energy. When people go outside, they see trash on the ground instead of the trashcan. This doesn’t help the economy instead it affects it. In today’s economy, the earth’s resources are suffering with major problems which lead to consequences. There are many ways to conserve the earth’s resources. However, the three most efficient ways to conserve the earth’s resources are reducing, reusing, and recycling products and materials.Reducing is one of the most efficient ways to help conserve resources. Reducing is cutting down on materials that are unnecessary. Using reduction conserves natural resources and uses less than usual in order to avoid waste. Energy is one of the resources that are limited. Reducing energy can help consume fossil fuels that are becomin g increasingly limited on supply. For example, instead of leaving the lights on when someone exits the house or room, he or she could turn off the lights. Also, people can unplug their appliances that are not in use to help reduce the use of energy within their household.Gas is another problem the earth is restricted on. Reducing the use of gas helps reduce the climate change in the world. For instance, people can reduce gas by carpooling with a neighbor or a friend. He or she could also ride their bikes to work, to school, or even to the park. This helps reduce the use of energy and gas. Although reducing helps the earth use less, reusing materials helps reduce waste. Reusing materials or products is the second most efficient way to conserve resources.Reusing materials helps avoid and slow down the process of products being turned into waste and reduces the number of products being brought. Clothes are essential items to be reused and can always be changed into something new. Cloth es productions are a major drain on natural resources and can involve unethical social practices. For example, people can donate their old clothing instead of throwing it into the trash. Also, people can restyle their old clothing, turning a pair of old jeans into a headband or even cut out designs and put them onto a shirt.This helps people who do not have clothing, give people ideas of new styling, and avoids waste. Plastic bags are another thing we should reuse. Plastic bags are necessary products that should be reused but aren’t. Plastic bags production consumes millions of gallons of oil that could be used for fuel and heating. For instance, when someone goes into the supermarket, he or she should purchase reusable bags instead of the plastic bags. He or she could even purchase fiber bags or cloth bags that can be reused multiple of times as he or she goes into different stores.Reusing these items helps reduce waste that’s being put into the air and water. Althoug h reusing products and materials may help reduce waste, recycling helps reduce pollution. Recycling is the third most efficient way to conserve resources. It is something that is very common in most countries. When raw materials are used in the manufacture of new goods derived from the core elements of old products, there is an enormous saving of limited and finite natural resources. Recycling is reusing materials or products in original or changed forms rather than discarding them as wastes.Aluminum is the most common material that is recycled in this economy. Recycling aluminum creates more jobs, helps the environment, and saves natural resources. For example, aluminum cans get recycled the most. Mostly for the money people could receive back. Also, beer bottle caps can be recycled and could be made into something different, such as it being turned into a decoration or even used for a project. Paper is the second most common material that is recycled. Making paper from recycled pa per uses less energy than making paper from trees. For example, everyone receives newspapers in the morning.Instead of throwing it into the trashcan, he or she could recycle it. Books are another example of paper that can be recycled. Used books that can no longer be used could be shredded and recycled. Recycling is the most important out of the three R’s. Although reducing, reusing, and recycling are important, many people do not believe that they help save the earth’s resources. They are sadly mistaken because they help use less, reduce waste, and reduce pollution into the air. This helps prevent global warming. The three r’s all help conserve energy within the world.

Monday, September 16, 2019

What Drive Individuals to Commit Crime

Every crime is the result of individual, physical and social conditions. (Ferri, 1893). In â€Å"Thinking seriously about crime† Jock Young described crime as â€Å"a product of the undersocialisation of the individual. This can be a result of (a) an innate genetic or physiological incapacity of the individual to be easily socialised; (b) a family background which was ineffective in the use of socialisation techniques in its child-rearing practices; (c) a social setting which lacked coherent and consistent consensual values†. This statement nicely introduces this essay, as all the main aspects that lead people in to crime will be discussed. Drugs are constantly the issue of intense government and political debate. Drugs and Alcohol are major factors in why people commit crime. An individual may be dealing in drugs to make money; they may commit crimes to feed their habit or they may just use drugs for recreational use. All these are practices are illegal. In the United States of America the number of inmates and prisoners has more than tripled since 1980. Four out of every five got there with the help of drugs and alcohol, says a report released by the National Centre on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. The report says: Of 1.7 million prisoners in 1996, 1.4 million had violated drug or alcohol laws. They had been under the influence when they committed their crimes, they had stolen to support their habit or had a history of drug or alcohol abuse that led them to commit crimes. In â€Å"The Drugs-Crime Connection† John Ball discusses the criminality of heroin addicts. â€Å"There is a general agreement among criminologists that an increase in criminality commonly occurs following the onset of heroin addiction†. Ball goes on to present the results of a survey conducted on a large group of heroin addicts and their activities whilst on and off heroin. The results are quite significant and clearly show that more crimes were committed whilst on heroin. It is important to note that most of the crimes reported were for theft and that drug use or possession was not classified as a crime. This is hardly surprising. Drug addiction is expensive. But have these people been propelled in to crime or are they committing crime by their own choice? It was most likely that they chose to take heroin but eventually could not come off it. They were then forced, because of their addiction, to go out and commit crime. So in a way they were propelled in to committing crime. But the question should be asked: What propelled them in to taking drugs? Are individuals who grow up or live in poverty propelled in to committing crime? It is certain that individuals who live in poverty are more prone to committing crime than individuals who live in opulence. Comparing crime figures for different areas will clearly show that. But do individuals who live in poverty only commit crime for financial gain? The fact that money is not in abundance is not a just reason to commit crime. There are many people who live in less privileged areas that do not commit crime. So what is the main reason why a person will commit crime? An Individuals† upbringing surely plays the most significant part in determining how they will turn out in life. An article published by Reuters in 1998 discussed the effects absent fathers had on children: â€Å"Sons with absent fathers are more likely to be jailed†. When a father is not present in the home, his son is twice as likely to end up in jail, according to a new study by Cynthia Harper of the University of Pennsylvania and Sara S. McLanahan of Princeton University. Tracking a sample of 6,000 males ages 14 to 22 from 1979 to 1993, the sociologists also found that even after accounting for differences due to race, income and education: The boys who grow up with a stepfather in the home were â€Å"more at risk than those with an absent father, with roughly three times greater risk of incarceration than those who live with both their parents†. Young men whose parents divorce during their adolescence were â€Å"roughly one and a half times as likely to wind up in jail as children from intact families† — faring slightly better than boys who were born to single mothers. While whites have lower rates of father absenteeism than blacks, white youths whose families split are at a higher risk of incarceration than their black peers. The presence of live-in grandparents in households without fathers â€Å"appears to help improve youths' chances of avoiding incarceration†, the study found. The lack of a decent role model in a childs† upbringing can cause many problems. When a child is growing up he/she needs discipline. They need to know what is right and what is wrong. Discipline is best administered by both parents and not just the mother. The statistic above clearly show how detrimental an absent father is to a child but other homes have fathers who, although present, did not nurture their children, or provide basic instruction on establishing healthy boundaries. Child abuse is found in families at every income. It is much more common at the lower income levels. Children who grow up in violent homes tend to use violence when they become adults in marriage and as parents. Each generation directly affects its descendants and indirectly influences later generations in the same family line. If a child grew up in an abusive household and later went on to commit violent crime, would his upbringing be a major factor? From the evidence presented here it can be concluded that an individuals† upbringing has a significant influence on their life. So an individual can be propelled in to crime. But perhaps he/she still has to be a certain type of person? Can people be born bad? The possibility that genetic research might identify genes for criminal Tendencies† has stimulated intense controversy. Media interest in the case of Stephen Thomas Mobley in which a ‘genetic defence† was pursued, together with News coverage of a conference in London in 1995 on ‘The Genetics of Criminal and Antisocial Behaviour†, brought the question of a link between genetics and Criminal behaviour to wide public attention. Mobley was convicted in February 1994 of the murder of John Collins and sentenced to death. Inspired by patterns of aggression in the Mobley family tree, his lawyers attempted to put together a genetic defence, not in hope of an acquittal, but to try to have the sentence reduced from death to life imprisonment (Mobley vs. The State 1995). The defence claims that there is a pattern of aggression and business success in Mobley†s ancestry that suggests a relevant genetic underlying for his criminal behaviour. In Mobley†s case the jury rejected the genetic defence. Whatever the merits of that particular case, might the findings of Behavioural Genetics provide any grounds for a legal defence? Since then a steady output of Newspaper articles and television documentaries have reflected continuing interest and concern over the suggestion that criminals might be born, not made. The nature/nurture debate rages on in many channels, but amongst psychologists and geneticists it is largely resolved that both are important. There are two possible theses of Genetic Determinism. Firstly there is ‘Weak Genetic Determinism† which suggests genetics has a role in the causation of a range of Behavioural and/or personality traits, such as aggression, dominance and IQ which are relevant to criminality. Secondly there is ‘Strong Genetic Determinism† which suggests genetics is a causally sufficient condition (under normal circumstances) for a range of behavioural and/or personality traits that Lead to criminality. But can an individuals genes lead to a life in crime? Are they the main contributing factor? Weak genetic determinism seems to be the more plausible theory. Strong genetic determinism would suggest that there exists something like a â€Å"Murderer gene† or a â€Å"Bank robber gene†. We clearly know this not to be true. We would then see a more even spread of crime throughout the nation if this were so. The premise that genes contribute towards persons† outcome in life can be accepted. If an individual has genes which make them highly aggressive then that person would be more prone to violent situations than a person whose genes make them a less aggressive person. The same would apply to IQ and dominance. However, it is sensible to say that not enough is known about genetics to make these theories solid fact but enough is known to show that genes can influence a person when certain situations exist. It is therefore safe to conclude that an individual is not propelled in to crime because of his genes, they can only influence him. This essay has looked at many possible reasons why individuals are propelled in to committing crime. We know that individuals† upbringing is clearly a large factor in determining an individuals† outcome in life. When an individual is being brought up he/she are taught what is right and wrong by their parents. The data shown in this essay clearly shows the detrimental effect that absent parents have on a child. The possibility that genetics plays a key role in the reasons why people commit crime has been looked at. It is safe to say that most likely, individuals are not propelled in to crime because they were â€Å"born bad†. It is also safe to say that not enough is known about genetics to present a concrete conclusion on the matter. From the data shown we know that when people are on drugs such as heroin, they will commit crime. Most individuals commit crime of their own accord. Whether they had a poor upbringing, they live in a â€Å"problem area†, are on drugs or have â€Å"criminal genes† they still commit crimes for personal gain. They are not propelled in to committing anything.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Benefits and limitations of airport security scanners Essay

                  The security and welfare of people is very important in a society. In order to ensure that people are secure and safe, some measures may be employed although they may be controversial. The example of airport security scans represents such a circumstance. The full body scanners are used detect objects that are on the body of an individual for security reasons without requiring the individual to remove their clothes or have physical contact with the device. Statistics indicate that as of December 2013 an estimated 740 scanners (full body scanners) these devices were in use at more than 150 airports in the United States (TSA). They are effective in identifying suspicious objects that a person may be carrying. However, there are concerns whether use of the full body actual really is a necessary precaution or a practice that invades the privacy of travelers.                  The devices are effective in detecting suspicious objects that may be concealed including both metallic and non-metallic objects. As opposed to metal detectors which identify objects that are made of metallic materials, the scanners used in airports detect both metal and non-metallic objects. They uncover objects that a physical pat-down would reveal but fail to be identified by a metal detector such as chemical explosives and plastic explosives. The device therefore performs the function of both a metal detector and a physical pat-down in revealing various dangerous devices at airports. People who have sinister motives or who desire to break the law by moving illegal items through airports would therefore not be able to succeed in perpetuating their plans because of the presence of the scanners. The primary objective of the scanners is hence achieved and safety of passengers as well as national security is secured.                   The fact that it performs the duties of both a physical pat-down and a metal detector means that the device facilitates time saving and is cost effective (TSA). Regardless of the high costs incurred in purchasing and installing it, the device would replace two security guards responsible for physical pat-downs (one guard for each gender). The airport using the device would hence save on wages for two people and less time would be consumed compared to the time used during a physical pat-down.                   Physical pat-downs are considered by various people to be intrusive and full body scanners provide a better alternative that is not as intrusive as pat-downs and that is more thorough. However, since they still examine the body of an individual in-depth, they still make people to feel that their privacy has been invaded. In order to further protect the privacy of people undergoing such scans, screeners are located in a different room from the individual where they can view images without exposing the identity of the person undergoing the scan (Tessler). In addition, security officers entering the viewing room are not allowed to enter with mobile phones, cameras or any gadgets that can take images and store or transmit them (Tessler). Still, fears remain that such images may be stored and used in other platforms such as uploading them to the internet. Authorities provide counterarguments such as the assertion that functions that are responsible for storag e or transmission are not active but rather that they are disabled prior to the installation of these devices in airports. This, though, does not overrule the possibility of technicians managing to enable such functions. Furthermore, it is not quite clear the reason behind inclusion of such functions in the device yet they get disabled prior to installation.                The costly nature of full body scanners is a major limitation that raises the costs of startup for people wishing to enter the aviation industry. Much as they are costly, they fail to reveal objects that are hidden in body cavities and are not capable of revealing objects that are of low density. It is therefore apparent that full body scanner despite of the significant popularity they have gained in combating security threats and illegal practices are incapable of combating drug smuggling that is executed through concealment of drugs in body cavities (Tessler).                   Full body scanners create a potential for harassment or embarrassment of specific groups of people. The device can detect medical equipment that may be connected to body parts such as catheters and it may necessitate further examination to confirm the identity of the object detected (Gartner et al). This would embarrass the victim who would feel that they have been singled out because of their medical condition. Transgender people are also susceptible to such embarrassment as the scanners are capable of detecting prosthetics such as testicles and breasts and the need may arise to further examine individuals whose images indicate the presence of both breasts and testicles as one of the two body features may be an improvised tool to conceal weapons, drugs or other illegal objects or objects not allowed through airport security (Gartner et al). Conclusion                   Full body scanners are recommended to improve airport security and only few loopholes are existent like the inability to detect objects in body cavities. Although much criticism has been directed at the devices, much of it is only based on assumptions and not factual information. On the contrary, the benefits of the device are validated by real life examples therefore full body scanners are largely beneficial. References Gartner M., Heyl M., Holstein A. and Thewalt A. What can the ‘naked’ scanner really see? Bild. 22 July 2010. Web. 8 April 2014 Tessler, Joelle. Airport full-body scanners have benefits, and limits. The Denver Post. 31 December 2009. Web. 8 April 2014 Transportation Security Administration, TSA. Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT). 12 February 2014. Web. 8 April 2014 Source document

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Advantages of Computer Essay

Agriculture is a vital sector of Pakistan’s economy and accounted for almost 30 percent of GDP annually, according to government estimates. The sector directly supports three-quarters of the country’s population, employs half the labor force, and contributes a large share of foreign exchange earnings. The main agricultural products are cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, fruits, and vegetables, in addition to milk, beef, mutton, and eggs. Pakistan depends on one of the world’s largest irrigation systems to support production. The following are the main crops cultivated in Pakistan: Wheat: Wheat is a staple food used in manufacture of baked products. It is grown on Barani lands. Wheat is grown in Punjab, Sindh and some parts of K.P.K for cultivation of wheat. The temperature is favorable from October to May for the production of wheat. It does not need a lot of water. Pakistan is not self sufficient in wheat production and has to import wheat from foreign countries. It accounts for over 70% of gross cereals and over 36% of the country’s acreage is devoted to wheat cultivation. Rice: Rice is a Kharif crop and needs a great deal of water and heat. It is known as â€Å"crop of water†. It is grown in Punjab and Sindh. North-eastern Punjab and Larkana district are main rice growing regions. The Irri, Basmati and desi varieties are grown in Pakistan. Basmati is the most famous variety of rice grown in Pakistan. Its highest acreage is in the north eastern part of Pakistan. Pakistan is the world’s fourteenth largest producer of rice. Pakistan produces about 6 million tons of rice a year. Sugar Cane Sugarcane is included in both Rabi and Kharif Crops. It is an important cash crop of Pakistan. It is a type of long grass â€Å"perennial† in nature. It is the most important and cheapest source of refined sugar. Gur,Alcohol and Desi Shakkar are also prepared from Sugar cane.The left out stalk fibers (bagasse) are used in the paper industries. It is cultivated in the spring season and harvested in November-December. It is mostly cultivated in canal irrigated areas of Punjab, KPK and Sindh provinces. Cotton Cotton also known as the â€Å"Silver Fiber† is the most important cash crop of Pakistan. It is known to have been produced in the Indus plain since 3000 BC. Pakistan, ranks fifth in world cotton production and earns a large amount of foreign exchange from its export. It accounts for approximately one half of the all materials that are made into cloth and provides employment to 2/3rd of industrial labour force Cotton is a Kharif crop and is grown in canal irrigated areas of Punjab and Sindh and also in some parts of Baluchistan and KPK.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Reflective journal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Reflective journal - Essay Example This chapter presents a transparent idea about gerontology and what it is all about. Starting from the etymology of the word to its recent purpose and development are discussed thoroughly and with sound evidences throughout the chapter. Chapter 1 of the book prepares its readers to understand the complexity and myth regarding aging. The evidences are skilfully derived and help to wipe out many common inhibitions regarding old age. The first chapter itself shows the path that the entire book deals with. Old age is nothing more than a passing phase of life and has its own delicacies and intricacies very much similar to any other phase of human life. The book is a psychological plethora and treasure house of academic research about the adulthood as a phase in human life. It systematically enables its readers to understand the subtleties of old age and the initiating chapter in this regard is very helping and thoughtful and renders a free passage, access to the entire volume generating elaborate and skilful interest. Chapter 2 of the book precisely deals with the troubles and major myths concerned with the problems of aging. The precise definition for the initiating period for adulthood is difficult. The chronological age for the adulthood varies from culture to culture. At places it is dependent on the activity and responsibility, an individual is bearing. At other places, it is guided by certain cultural complexities and inhibitions. The chapter is precisely concerned with the events that mark the transitional phases of life. Events which are responsible for marking the initiation of the adulthood, along with the concepts of love, Erikson’s Identity crisis, the concept of intimacy are some of the key concepts discussed in the chapter thoroughly. The chapter 2 of the book bearing the name â€Å"Young Adulthood: