Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Indian populations of Argentina and Chile pre-colonial period and Essay

Indian populations of Argentina and Chile pre-colonial period and their changing reality during the colonial period - Essay Example Indians belonging to the Guarani tribe originally inhabited most of the regions in South America such as Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina. They used to be semi-nomadic, well known for their fierce and warriors like culture and traditions. Actually, the name ‘Guarani’ stands for warrior. Some Argentines trace their ancestry to the Guarani tribe, and they have brown eyes and dark hair. They have light skin, portraying a combination of European and Guarani heritage 1(Aladama, 2003 p 328). Before the conquest by Spain, the Guarani had been scattered widely throughout southern American countries including Argentina. Thus, this Indian community had occupied Argentina even before colonization. They carried out numerous economic activities, which determined their culture. Long before, the Spaniards arrived in Argentina, Guarani used to be hunters and gatherers. They survived by hunting animals for food, as well as gathering fruits in forests. Men used to do the hunting, while women did gathering 2(Schild, 2000 p275). On the other hand, Mapuches occupied most of Chile and just a few Mapuches inhabited Argentina. Indians of the Mapuche tribe became the first inhabitants of Argentina and Chile, with them occupying a vast territory before the arrival of the Spanish. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the Mapuche occupied most of the parts in South America, and their population was two million. Currently, they occur in large numbers of about one and a half million in Chile and two hundred thousand in Argentina. Therefore, they have occupied most parts in Chile as compared to Argentina. Indian Mapuche constituted the third largest community in South America before colonization and after colonization of Chile by Spain 3(Geschiere&Nyamnjoh, 2001 p 170). Before colonization, and the coming of Incas and Spanish, the Mapuche occupied forests in

Monday, October 28, 2019

Car Accident Essay Example for Free

Car Accident Essay Peter is nice man and a hard worker, but he is careless about his wife and family, his wife Carteria take care all the housework, he has been two month did not go home , he was on a business trip, when he arrived at home, Carteria is not at home , he look at his watch , it is already seven pm, Carteria should be at home with diner really. He makes a phone call to his wife, but no one pick up. He grap a buttle of water sit on sofa turn on the TV wait his wife to come home. he is tired from the work. Eventually he fall in sleep on sofa. When he wake up it already ten am at morning and he realize Carteria has not come home. He start to worry about her, keep calling her but no one pick up the phone. It was never happen befor, he try to find any number relate to Carteria,except her number he can not find anything, all the number are about his work, what is happen to her, he start nerves. He never care about her like that. He just tell himself she is going to be ok, she may just hang out with some friend, and forget about time, because Peter is not with her all the time, maybe she just feel longly sometime. All he has to do just be patience wait. He decide to sit on sofa to release his nerves, at same time he turn on the TV, he peer at photo just on the TV stander, he never know there is a photo. The picture is he and Carteria with lovely smile on the park. A news attract his attention, it is a car accident happen on a few block a way from his home yesterday. â€Å"Oh no no no, not her† Peter say . â€Å"A 42 years old man die in the accident† he shut off the TV and say â€Å"thanks god it is not happen her† he feels so release, he take out photo album and look at it. It remind his good memory with Carteria. He has been long time did not go out with his wife. Now he think about when she come back, he going to have a trip with her. Suddenly the door is open Carteria come back, Peter stand up from sofa and walk to the door, look at her with a happy face, he wants to say happy to see you again, but he does not finish what he say, because Carteria s face looks so sad something bad happen to her and the face can tell she has been cry, the tear still on her eyes. Then Peter just say â€Å"Hi what is happen to you† he does not answer it. She just take off her shoes, â€Å"where have you been ? † Peter say, she does not even look at him and walk straight to the room lock the door. Peter can hear Carteria is crying so hard in the room. Peter has no idear what is going on. He knock the door â€Å"what is happen to you† Peter ask, she does not answer it. Peter sits beside the door, wait when she gets better come out and ask her what happen about her. How long has she cry, peter can not remember Carterian come out ,she still does not talk to peter. She gets in to the car, peter sit beside her. Carteria drive the car. Finally they arrived at a funeral, â€Å"whom funeral is that† say peter. The most of member are his family and friends. When they walk close, Peter shock by the funeral. That is his own funeral, his name on the tombstone. Carteria cry again. Flash back Peter suddenly remember the car accident happen a few blocks a way from his home. It is he on his way go home hit by a car, and Carteria spend all night with him. He does not know she love him so much, but right now he has no chance to love her back.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Eudora Welty:Worn Path, visit of charity :: essays research papers

Eudora Welty   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The are only so many ways an author may sum up the course of a human life within just a few pages. Eudora Welty has the awesome talent of being able to do just this. In her stories â€Å"Where Is the Voice Coming From†, â€Å"A Visit of Charity† and â€Å"A Worn Path†, Welty uses the reoccuring themes of characterization, confrontation, journey, and insight into ones mind to convey key aspects of her stories. Through characterization Welty shows individuals who experience confrontations, and as a result complete a type of journey.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  With a chillingly cold attitude, the protagonist of â€Å"Where is The Voice Coming From† takes it upon himself to take care of what he feels to be an inconvenience in his life, by murdering a local civil rights activist in cold blood. He later states, â€Å"I done what I done for my own pure-D satisfaction† (â€Å"Where is The Voice Coming From†482). This embodies the protagonist as a cruel, racist, self righteous murderer. One later is drawn to the conclusion that the only regret that the protagonist has is not getting the credit he believes he deserves for his crime.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  With the knowledge of her deathly ill grand son at home, Pheonix Jackson decides to head for town to receive medication for him. In her travels the reader is given a real insight into the person that Pheonix really is. While crossing over a fallen down log, Pheonix jovially remarks, â€Å"I wasn’t as old as I thought† (â€Å"A Worn Path†636). One must realize the amount of strength and determination it must take for this frail old woman to accomplish such a task, yet Pheonix takes it with a grain of salt and keeps on going. At this point the reader finally realizes the respect that Pheonix deserves for being the beautifully harmonious person that she is.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In another work of Welty’ we are depicted the character of a seemingly kind, charitable young Campfire girl, named Marion, who is sent to an old age home. Yet what we do not know is that Marion has another side to her besides the bright, vibrant young girl that she is. We soon come to see this side of her as she sprint from the old folks home, â€Å" Under the prickly shrub she stopped and quickly, without being seen, retrieved a red apple she had hidden there.† (â€Å"A Visit of Charity). The reader now realizes the true conniving ways that Marion withholds in the beginning.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Between 1820 and 1860 there were a few fundamental differences between the economies of the North and South Essay

?Between 1820 and 1860 there were a few fundamental differences between the economies of the North and South. How far do you agree? Between 1820 and 1860 there were problems in America that resulted in the civil war in 1861, the economy affected the North and South during the civil war, and some major differences helped win the civil war. However this does not mean that the economy had many fundamental differences. For example the methods of earning money were different, but overall both earned roughly the same amount of money. Firstly, the main difference was that the North relied much more on money from industry and manufacturing, as they had more connections with foreign countries, and more factories were built. In the North in 1860 there were 74,000 factories producing two thirds, of goods for America. Whereas in the South there were only 2 major factors: Textiles factory in South Carolina and an Iron works in Virginia set up in 1840. Although they had fewer factories, the Iron works was vital, as it supplied the North with weaponry during the Civil war. In 1850 the South only produced 10% of the nations manufactured output. However the South did lack the industrialisation because their agricultural methods were so effective they had no need for change. The South was also very traditional and disliked change, whereas seven out of eight immigrants had chosen to settle in the North, and they had seen new ideas in other places in Europe so were welcome to change. This is shown by the South’s labour force being reduced from 82% to 81% over 60 years, on the other hand, the North’s labour force was reduced from 68% to 40% over the 60 years. This is however not a reflection on the North rapidly reducing agriculturally, because they still relied on agriculture, and a lot of the North was still rural. Around the urban areas, the population was increasing as towns and cities were developing swiftly. As the North had smaller but still prosperous farmers known as yeomen, they did not earn as much money through agriculture, because they did not have many or any slaves at all, so they could not produce the high quantities that the south did. Farmers that had lots of land were called plantation owners; there were many more plantations in the south, and when the cotton gin was created in 1793, there was a boom in cotton, and the benefit of having slaves increased. This made Southern plantation owners invest their capital in the Slaves, because they produced so much cotton, which was very lucrative. 55% of slaves worked in cotton which shows how much money was made out of it. The South needed to transport their goods to the North so that it could be transported abroad, but there was a lack of transport in South, as they only had 35% of the train tracks, which affected them in the Civil war. This meant it was fairly expensive to transport the cotton, but they still received a good amount of money if they lived near a train track. When the cotton arrived in the North the Lowell factory system meant the manufacturing of it was very cheap, which meant the North earnt a large margin on it. Although the danger of the South investing all their money in Slaves was that when slavery got banned, they lost a lot of money, which was partly why they were so keen to keep slavery. However only one quarter of the population owned a slave, as they were expensive (in 1860 they were $1800 which was double the price in 1820). The North’s economy was based on free labour whereas the South’s was based on slave labour, which meant that the North’s economy was more stimulated by the presence of workers with money who could buy products, which would make money for the company, which in turn would increase wages or hire more workers. The South’s economy was largely devoid of this benefit. Essentially, the economy in the South was weaker and only based on a few important exports (cotton, tobacco, and sugar). This made the South less diversified, as they focused their sales on cotton. Another difference is tariffs; in 1828 congress passes a controversial high protective tax. This majorly benefitted the North as they were the main distributors. However the South were very worried about this because they believed that if they stopped buying the expensive foreign goods, then foreign countries would stop buying their goods, as they would have tax on them too. This affected the economy until the tax was promised to be reduced after the law in 1833. In contrast the North and South didn’t have many fundamental differences. They both created a lot of money, and were not lacking at all, the only difference was the method in which was used to make the money. The economic diversification was similar too, as 10% of Northerners owned 68% of the wealth, and the wealth was dominated by the plantation owners, called oligarchies, as there were few free-soilers. 12% of the plantation owners owned half the slaves. This shows that there were few farmers, but the big plantations owned many slaves. Even though the North seems to be more industrial, the South also made efforts to modernise industrially, but they just lacked because of the closed opinions of the southerners. Also not many people in the North and the South owned slaves, it was more of a rare thing, and the main owners, owned a large amount of slaves. However there was a larger need for slaves in the South, because there was cheap labour force from Europe settling in the North which meant slaves were more expensive so were not deemed as important. Overall I think there were many differences between the North and South between 1820 and 1860. Some affected the outcome of the Civil war such as the transport boom, and the industrialisation in the North, but a fundamental point is that numerically they have equal amounts of income; there were just different methods to earning the money. However the differences were major; the amount of industrialisation, and amount of agriculture, the manufactured output, and the need for slaves, was all very different for the North and South. The main similarity was the economic diversification.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Computer: Related Studies and Definitions Essay

Password is a string of characters used for authenticating a user on a computer system. Biometrics refers to technologies used to detect and recognize human physical characteristics. In the ITworld, biometrics is often synonymous with â€Å"biometric authentication,† a type of security authorization based on biometric input. Employer A legal entity that controls and directs a servant or worker under an express or implied contract of employment and pays (or is obligated to pay) him or her salary or wages in compensation. Payroll Administrator defined as a person in an organization who is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the employees within the firm are paid accurately and timely. Payroll administrators can either be working on site or outsourced. Transaction Something transacted, especially a business agreement or exchange. Computer Program(Program) a sequence of instructions, stored in any medium, that can be interpreted and executed by a computer; – called most frequently a program. This term is used both for the written program (a document) and for its corresponding electronic version stored or executed on the computer. MSDOS Microsoft Disk Operating System. A computer operating system for personal computers, which has largely been replaced by the more common Windows operating system. MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System) was the Microsoft-marketed version of the first widely-installed operating system in personal computers. It was  essentially the same operating system that Bill Gates’s young company developed for IBM as Personal Computer Window Based (Windows-based; upper case â€Å"W†) Refers to hardware and software that use Microsoft Windows. 201 file In most organization, commonly use office forms are standardized and numbered. In this case, an office form numbered 201 is classified as the personal data sheet. Hence, a 201 file contains the personal information of an employee. Biometric Attendance & Payroll Systems by Star Catalyst Now a days companies want to focus mainly on their main area of operations, hence automatic attendance systems are the need of the hour for every small as well as big organization. These biometric systems automate the process of attendance & payroll generation and recording. We offer access and attendance system, biometric time attendance systems, fingerprint time attendance systems and many more. Various technologies being used for attendance & payroll are as follows : 1.Proximity based 2.Biometric based – Retina Recognition, hand print recognition, face recognition 3.Fingerprint basedStar CatalystBased at New Delhi, we are offering turnkey solutions in security domain to the corporate and government sector. Timely execution and proper planning are some of the features of our security services and electronic article surveillance system. Our Team Committed to deliver clients services that have high degree of perfection our services comply with the international standards and specifications.  Making use of technologically advanced machinery and in-depth industrial experience, our team of experts has formulated our services in an industry specific manner. We are competent to maintain and create firm and long-lasting relationship with our clients by providing them quality services for which we have set our own quality parameters. Our team  of production experts uses state-of-art technologies finely blended with their acquired specialized knowledge & technical know-how to bring out effective results.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Vet, Vetted, Vetting

Vet, Vetted, Vetting Vet, Vetted, Vetting Vet, Vetted, Vetting By Maeve Maddox The verb vet, â€Å"investigate someone’s suitability for a job,† took the American media by storm during the presidential campaign of 2008. Vet was Number Two on Merriam-Webster’s Word of the Year list that year. (Bailout was Number One.) Although the word has been in American dictionaries for close to 100 years, few US speakers seem to have heard of it before 2008. Some forum participants continue to puzzle over it: The past presidential election is the first time I heard the term â€Å"vet† or â€Å"vetting  a candidate.† What does it mean? (2012) Honestly, I had never heard the word before until today. (2013) Here are some examples of the word’s current use on the Web: Hollywoods medical storylines vetted by those who know 10 Steps for Vetting Unknown Internet Sources The Garda Central Vetting Unit (GCVU) provides the only official vetting service in the Republic of Ireland. While it is general practice for most employers to call references and confirm previous employers, vetting an employee delves a little deeper into the applicants background. Some speakers–apparently lacking access to a dictionary–speculate that the verb vet may derive from veteran or veto: Coming from the word veteran maybe? From Latin veto (to prohibit), referring to the practice of having an opportunity to veto a decision before it is finalized. Wrong. The verb â€Å"to vet† is derived from the noun veterinarian. It originated as a term meaning, â€Å"to submit an animal to examination or treatment by a veterinary surgeon.† The earliest citation in the OED illustrates the word in the context of horse racing: 1891: Beau is shaky in his fore legs. I shall have him vetted before the races. By 1904, the term had spread to general usage with this meaning: to examine carefully and critically for deficiencies or errors; specifically, to investigate the suitability of (a person) for a post that requires loyalty and trustworthiness. As for veteran and veto, the English word veteran comes from a Latin word for old. â€Å"Old soldiers,† for example, were called veterani. Veto translates as â€Å"I forbid,† a declaration spoken by Roman tribunes of the people when they wished to oppose measures of the Senate or actions of the magistrates. The Latin source word for veterinary and veterinarian is veterinus: â€Å"a beast of burden.† Veterinus may have been a contracted form of vehiterinus, a word related to the verb vehere, to carry or convey. A beast of burden carries things. Veterinarians care for beasts of burden. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Idioms About NumbersOn Behalf Of vs. In Behalf OfWhile vs. Whilst

Monday, October 21, 2019

6 Secret Weapons You Won’t Learn in Nursing School 

6 Secret Weapons You Won’t Learn in Nursing School   We all know how much studying is required to become a nurse. But even after all those books and hours, there are a few tools in the magic toolbox that can help turn a nurse into a super healer over the course of his or her career. 1. Lie DetectionWhether a patient is too embarrassed to discuss the real problem or they’re struggling with addiction, the ER nurse is the b***s*** detecting first line of defense. Develop your sharpness in figuring out what a patient really needs (or doesn’t need) and you’ll help them in far greater numbers.2. Common SenseThis one is almost impossible to teach, but it is paramount- and doctors and nurses, particularly in the chaotic ER, tend to accumulate a lot of it. It’s what helps you keep your head and triage the situation.3. Cool Under ChaosControl is great, but it doesn’t always linger long in the ER. Most people, if dropped into that pandemonium, would crumble under the pressure. But keeping your cool with patients everywhere and unexpected problems? That’s a standard issue skill for nurses.4. Gut InstinctYou’ve studied everything there is to study, but you’re nothing without instinct. It’s a nurse’s secret weapon, honed over the course of a career. Patience, observation, and years of practice give nurses deeper insight, plus the confidence to listen to that gut feeling when it comes!5. A Noise-Cancelling BrainChaos is loud. Pagers, sirens, voices, and codes are flying and your task is to concentrate on listening to one heartbeat or one patient history. Learn how to tune out the excess noise and you’ll develop the ability to focus only on the highest priority.6. A Nose for ItNothing in the ER smells particularly good. But nurses have a keener sense of what the funkiest smells can mean, medically speaking. They’ve saved millions of hours and dollars expediting the diagnostic process with their Spidey sense.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Air Travel Safety and Probable Causes of Human Error

Air Travel Safety and Probable Causes of Human Error Should airlines have a specific criterion in hiring new applicants in order to ensure consistent quality service? Hashtag: #CertificatesOfDoom Air Travel Safety and Probable Causes of Human Error Commercial aircraft’s hull-loss accident rate is 1.5 per one million departures making it the safest form of mass transportation in the world. However, despite tremendous improvements in commercial jets technology, the safety of air travel constantly depends on human efficiency and reliability or in the qualifications of aircraft’s pilot and crew. UK statistics of transport accidents in 2003 suggest that there are 20 times more people being killed in car accidents than passengers of commercial airlines each year. Traveling  by air is also 4 times safer than rail travel. In fact, the average fatality for every 12.5 million passengers carried by UK airlines is one. Moreover, airline passenger’s overall survivability rate in the year 2000 was already 95.7% and probably much higher today due to continuous improvement in aircraft’s design, operation, maintenance, and air traffic control. Except for human error, this makes commercial airlines the fastest, reliable, and safest type of mass transportation in the world. Human error is the main contributor to aircraft accidents. In fact, despite the presence of automated flight management systems and adaptive cruise control in cockpits, the common cause of aircraft accidents is human errors. Specifically, these are pilot’s intentional violation of operating procedures, incorrect reasoning, slips or mistakes caused by fatigue, and wrong response to a critical situation. Slips caused by fatigue are easy to accept, but breaking the rules and making faulty responses and reasoning is a quite strange for a well-educated, highly trained, and adequately experienced aviation pilot. Are these pilots really skilled and competent or holders of #CertificatesOfDoom from an aviation college in Nairobi? Critical Essay Airlines Criterion and Academically Incompetent Pilots Airlines have a  specific criterion in hiring new applicants in order to ensure consistent quality service. On the other side of the coin, it is also a precautionary measure to prevent entry of â€Å"half-baked† pilots or those with poor quality aviation training, less piloting experience, and insufficient formal education. It is quite evident that an ideal airline pilot is one with adequate formal education, well trained and with long hours of flight experience. A pilot holding a deceitfully acquired academic certificate or #CertificatesOfDoom, therefore, has no business whatsoever in the aviation industry. The recent Twitter expose about some aviation graduates that bought their degrees and certificates in various fields of Aeronautics, is a sad indication that some pilots of commercial airlines are academically incompetent. Another is the shocking reality that these certificates were sold by the institution that we all hoped to teach good values and promote learning in young people. Free Sample Essay about Travelling Academically incompetent pilots must not be allowed to fly or work in the aviation industry. In particular, those who acquired their degrees without attending the class are dangerous people with no respect for human life. The aviation industry should keep them out or terminate those who are already in the industry. In time, their lack of academic knowledge will take its toll on their ability to reason, make right decisions, and correctly respond to life-threatening situations. Remember, human error is not only responsible for significant financial losses but to the thousands of people who were killed by one man’s incompetence.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Environmental Studies Of The States Climate Essay

Environmental Studies Of The States Climate - Essay Example The monthly temperature ranges from 91.5Â °F to 30.0Â °F. Snow fall is a rare phenomenon and the highest record is only 13 inches on March 12-13, 1993 at Birmingham. Tornados and hurricanes are very common around Birmingham and Mobile due to turbulent wind patterns. Hurricanes of wind speeds 145mph caused the worst tornado disaster the Dixie Tornado outbreak in April 27, 2011 in which 50 tornados claimed more than 238 lives. Alaska The state Alaska is known for its high snow falls but is also hot in the summer. The highest mean annual temperature is 51.4Â °F recorded at Annette, AP and the lowest average annual temperature is 0.9Â °F recorded at Umiat. The mean annual rainfall is the highest at Whitter at 185.2 inches and the most snowfall occurs in the month of January at Valdez WSO as much as 65.1 inches with a snow depth of 31 inches. The extreme northern part of Alaska is Arctic with long and very cold winters and there is snow almost year around here. The wind speeds at the costal parts of the Gulf of Alaska are as high as 40 to 45 kmph and major natural disasters in Alaska are due to storms. Arizona The climatic conditions in this state are dry with little rainfall. The highest temperature recorded was 128Â °F at Lake Havasu City, 1994 and the lowest temperature recorded was -40Â °F at Hawley Lake, 1971. The average annual maximum temperature is 76.3Â °F recorded at Lake Havasu City and the lowest is 38.3Â °F at Sunrise Mountain. The highest average annual precipitation is at Hawley Lake 38.2 inches, and the lowest is 2.67 inches. The highest average annual snowfall is at Sunrise Mountain recorded as 243 inches. The state is more prone to storms and there are large temperature swings between the day and the night temperatures due to the dry climatic conditions relevant in the state. Arkansas Due to the location close to the Gulf of Mexico, Arkansas has a humid subtropical climate. The lowest temperature was recorded at Pond in 1905 as –29Â °F and a record high of 120Â °F was recorded on 1936 at Ozark. Average yearly precipitation is approximately 45 inches in the mountainous areas and greater in the lowlands; for example Little Rock received an annual average of 50.9 inches. Snowfall in the capital averages 5.2 inches a year and the northern part of the state gets more snowfall during the winter. The state is prone to natural disasters like thunderstorms, hails, snow storms and ice storms. A tornado with wind speeds as high as 180 to 200 mph damaged Atkins where 12 people were killed. California Most of the areas in the state of California have a Mediterranean climate, while some have a subarctic climate that is colder winters and hotter summers. The maximum average yearly temperature was recorded as 91Â °F at Death Valley. The lowest average annual temperature was recorded at Squaw Valley Lodge as 27.3Â °F. The mean rainfall was recorded the highest at 104.2 inches at Honey Dew and the lowest was recorded at 2.7 inches at Brawley. Snowfall is nil at most areas and the highest snowfall of 287.7 inches was recorded at Big Ben Ranger Station. The wind speeds range from 4.5 mph to 13.3 mph. Flood due to heavy rain, tornados, thunder storms and firestorms are common in this state.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Psychology questions Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Psychology questions - Term Paper Example For Christian therapy and therapy in general, I think it’s necessary to, in a sense, disregard these findings and adopt a pro-active worldview that emphasizes the individual’s agency in facing and combating their psychic complications and dysfunctions. 2. I believe that Freud’s theories are an approximation of human nature and the use of his terms like ego defense mechanisms and the unconscious are not scientifically accurate. I think any therapy would benefit from the aspects of Freudian psychotherapy that seek to find the deep undercurrents of issues over a prolonged investigative period, but that it would be erroneous to believe that a therapeutic approach that doesn’t involve specific Freudian approaches and Freudian terminology is ineffective. 3. In reviewing Freud’s stage of psychosexual development I am drawn to the means by which individuals have set stages and struggles they must encounter in order to developmentally progress. While Freud is predominantly concerned with the childhood stages of development, he concludes his psychosexual stages of development with the genital phase which includes large portions of adolescence and young adulthood (Mitchell 1996). When I consider such stages in my own life I am drawn to the period after graduation from high school when I faced a sort of personal crisis as to my place in the world and maturity. I approached this life stage with determination and consistency in both school and my social life; I would apply these principles to my therapeutic approach as I believe they can be applied to a wide variety of developmental challenges. 4. Considering death from a spiritual standpoint, I believe that it is necessary for one to consider their own mortality and find a certain meaning or purpose in their life. I don’t think it’s necessarily essential that an individual embrace a belief in an afterlife, but that they understand that their time on Earth is limited and

London 2012 olympics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

London 2012 olympics - Essay Example So how are they doing so far?† In this regard, the objective of this study is to evaluate the above statement in alignment with the factors of success of the London Olympics through comparative analysis with other Olympic events held in the last two decades of so. One of the major factors that can depict the success of London Olympics 2012 is the improvement of socio-cultural aspect. It is important to note that the Olympics are among the major sporting event throughout the world that involves the participation maximum number of nations. It also possesses maximum number of individual participants along with sporting events, further signifying its global appeal (Hunter, 2012). Hence, spectators from different nations arrive at the venue which further creates an environment of multicultural meet at the venue city of nation. Thus, this particular social gathering results in socio-cultural bonding between different groups of people. In this regard, the London Olympics has been highly successful considering the large number of spectators visited the country from different nations of the world, which further enhanced the socio-cultural bonding among different ethnic groups. Comparatively, this particular aspect has been can be regarded to be better than that of the Athens Olympics in 2004. However, a strong argument could not be presented with regard to the socio-cultural benefits during the Sydney Olympics in 2000 and Beijing Olympics in 2008 when compared to the London Olympics (Hunter, 2012; Kuper & Sterken, 2012). Political gains of conducting any mega sporting events like Olympics, is regarded among the major success factor for the host nations. This is evident from the history through analysis of past Olympic events. The reason behind this is that in any Olympic events maximum number of nations meet or gather in common platform i.e. host nation. Thus, along with the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Health & Safety Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Health & Safety Management - Essay Example Examples of chemical hazards include benzene, hydrogen sulphide, etc. Ergonomic hazards arise when there is a mismatch between the task being performed and the human abilities. Examples of ergonomic hazards include lifting or pushing heavy objects. Physical hazards are forms of energy that can adversely affect the health and safety of an employee by their interaction with the human body. Examples of physical hazards include noise, radiation, etc. Psychosocial hazards arise by interaction of employees with peers or other people. Examples of psychosocial hazards include stress. Occupational health hazards, such as the ones described above have chronic effects and symptoms often take long time to develop or become apparent. Examples of adverse health effects arising from such hazards include asbestosis; a form or lung cancer that develops from inhalation of asbestos fibres, noise induced hearing loss; a permanent form of loss in hearing caused by prolonged exposure to noise, repetitive strain injuries; a form of musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetition of strenuous work, stress; caused by social interaction, or illness caused by E. coli infection. Some health effects, such as asbestosis or noise induced hearing loss take long time to become apparent and are often late for remedial action. Other risks exist in the working environments that have acute effects on the health and safety of employees. These hazards arise from unsafe conditions that exist in the working environment. Examples of such hazards include trips and falls, accidents, etc. Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has reported cases of adverse health effects from virtually every hazard that exists in the working environment. These hazards not only adversely affect the health and safety of employees, but also cause lost time to employers and costs in terms of compensation or treatment. Many of these hazards have caused fatalities and permanent disabilities. Such losses affect the

School Vouchers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

School Vouchers - Essay Example Due to the multifaceted effect of the said system it is important to consider the advantages of the system over the disadvantages (Walberg, and Wang 2-15). When it comes to the study of the issues regarding the voucher system for schools, there are the two sides. The side that affirm the importance of the used of the school vouchers and the side that questions the feasibility of the propositions and policies are vital to the study of the school voucher system (Kupermintz 2). The main objective of the study if to present the importance of the application of school voucher system. To be able to determine the importance of school voucher system, views on the different aspects are required. Based on the study of the different issues related to the system, there are different points that can be given attention. These points include the educational aspect itself, social aspect, and political aspect. It is important to give attention to these issues to be able to realize the vitality of the voucher system. The primary evidence of the importance and applicability of the school voucher is in relation to the a... Although there are different contradictions and criticism regarding the issue, it is important to consider that the main objective is to be able to provide access to education. The subsequent evidence in support of the school voucher system is the aim of the proponents of the establishment of the system to target the improvement in terms of educating the population. Generally the view of the group that opposes the system is the fact that optimization of the resources if not guaranteed and that the possible loss in terms of fund can be put to the improvement of the public schools which are considered to require more form the government to be able to improve. This can be considered to be affected by the school vouchers due to the fact that in most cases these privileges are also from the government and government officials. Although there is an important point being presented by the groups that question the feasibility of the school vouchers it is important to consider the different advantages that are related to the system. It can be considered as an optimistic action to be able to alleviate a larger portion of the population from illiteracy. It can be considered as a bold action to be able to pursue the advocacy for school voucher due to the fact that it is opt to be questioned by different groups. The advocacy for the continuance of the school voucher system is important for the people who have the capability to avail the requirements and the privileges of the provision system due to the fact that the people being helped can make the difference. When it comes to the different aspects that can be discerned by the groups and institutions in the society that are against the continuation of the provision of school

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Health & Safety Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Health & Safety Management - Essay Example Examples of chemical hazards include benzene, hydrogen sulphide, etc. Ergonomic hazards arise when there is a mismatch between the task being performed and the human abilities. Examples of ergonomic hazards include lifting or pushing heavy objects. Physical hazards are forms of energy that can adversely affect the health and safety of an employee by their interaction with the human body. Examples of physical hazards include noise, radiation, etc. Psychosocial hazards arise by interaction of employees with peers or other people. Examples of psychosocial hazards include stress. Occupational health hazards, such as the ones described above have chronic effects and symptoms often take long time to develop or become apparent. Examples of adverse health effects arising from such hazards include asbestosis; a form or lung cancer that develops from inhalation of asbestos fibres, noise induced hearing loss; a permanent form of loss in hearing caused by prolonged exposure to noise, repetitive strain injuries; a form of musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetition of strenuous work, stress; caused by social interaction, or illness caused by E. coli infection. Some health effects, such as asbestosis or noise induced hearing loss take long time to become apparent and are often late for remedial action. Other risks exist in the working environments that have acute effects on the health and safety of employees. These hazards arise from unsafe conditions that exist in the working environment. Examples of such hazards include trips and falls, accidents, etc. Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has reported cases of adverse health effects from virtually every hazard that exists in the working environment. These hazards not only adversely affect the health and safety of employees, but also cause lost time to employers and costs in terms of compensation or treatment. Many of these hazards have caused fatalities and permanent disabilities. Such losses affect the

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Evidence based nursing practice Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Evidence based nursing practice - Research Paper Example 10). DESCRIPTION Evidence based nursing practice is the application of nursing practice based on information gathered from researches (McCann, 2007, p. 2). Usually, this information came from nurses’ experiences in the health care setting. Research data help nurses in deciding appropriate patient care and tend to be more updated than reference books. In conducting evidence based nursing practice project, the basic steps involved are: clinical question formulation, searching and reviewing articles on that clinical question, critical evaluation and comparison of the articles, application of the information from the articles, and outcome evaluation of the changes made in local practice (McCann, 2007, p. 5). Developing a clinical question may arise from clinical practice or to an area where an individual wants to gain awareness. To start a clinical question, it must be specific, concrete, and pointing relationship between patient and exposure. The formulation of an outcome and fac tors to consider are also included in the first step. After establishing clinical questions, the nurse will have to review relevant articles to use. Online indexes, published journals, books, and other references serve as databases and will help in broadening knowledge about the research topic. The next step is critical evaluation and comparison of the articles. In this step, the nurse must make sure that articles were published in peer-reviewed journals, that is, outside experts had reviewed the article prior to publication (McCann, 2007, p. 6). Articles are examined for quality indicators such as validity and reliability. If found out that the information from the article is valid and reliable, the information from the article is applied. Then, outcomes are further evaluated depending on the patient’s response. The response of the patient serves as gauge line for measuring initial objectives. Documentation must be concise and objective, and additional information are implem ented as new heath practice. In 2008, Reavey and Tavernier conducted a study comprising the team formation of staff nurses, unit nurse manager, clinical nurse specialist, nurse researcher, and infection control nurse. The clinical question is to identify the best practice for frequency of central line dressing changes in severely neutropenic patients. The current policy, which is daily dressing changes, resulted in skin breakdown and increases the chance for infection. The patients were dissatisfied also with the frequency and discomfort due to skin breakdown. The team conducted a literature search of relevant evidence. Based on the literatures, the team came up with a proposal that central line dressings must be changed every 7 days or as needed, and gauze dressing changes every 2 days. The expected outcomes were reduced cost spent in supplies and less nursing time required, as well as decreased infection and skin breakdown. The team implemented the proposal and conducted a pilot s tudy measuring outcomes. During 6 months of trial, blood stream infection rate is 4 per 1,000 line days, which is below the benchmark. Based on this result, the current health policy on central line dres

Monday, October 14, 2019

Different control sensors Essay Example for Free

Different control sensors Essay The idea of a pressure sensor is to ultimately measure and monitor the pressure of either gasses or liquids. But, what is pressure? Well, pressure ultimately is an expression used to describe the process of the force that is used when restraining a gas or a liquid from expanding. It has a certain measurement normally in the force per unit area. When the pressure is measured it can be monitored in a number of ways, but, most typically it is done with an electrical signal. We can see many examples of pressure monitors/switches in appliances all over the world today. Pressure sensors are found in items such as cars and lifts. For example, a person walks up to a door and they wish for it to be opened on arrival, with a pressure switch located in the floor as soon as the pressure switch is activated the door will open, this form of switch will tend to require a form of displacement. Another example if where a pressure switch/monitor may be found is within a car. When the tyres reach a certain pressure the control system kicks in and then they are warned to pump them up. If we consider large industries such as factories with combustion engines then we need to bear in mind that there needs to be some form of indication when present conditions change within the mechanism, this is also where a pressure sensor will come in handy. The picture on the top left of this paragraph is similar to what may be found in an industrial placement. A Rotary Switch A rotary switch is used when we have a devise that needs to operate or change to two or more different states, for example, a rotary switch may be used for; A fan that regulates heat at different speeds A radio that needs to operate on different frequencies The most common type of rotary switch is the rotary light switch, and the way in which this works is pretty straight forward. A rotary switch is a device that has a rotating shaft connected to one terminal capable of making or breaking a connection to one or more other terminals (the rotating shaft can be seen in the picture on the left) to many other types of electrical switching mechanisms, the electromechanical rotary switch provides a desirable means to control large numbers of circuits over a wide range of currents, voltages and power requirements. Rotary switches provide electrical control for the following types of equipment; Medical equipment, Aircraft, computers, Â  Industrial controls, Â  Communication, Â  Ordnance, Â  Ground support equipment Different types of rotary switches are used in a variety of electric devices. They are in the form of at least two parts and have a rotatable switching means arranged in a grouping and a rotary knob having a coupling element which can be pushed into or onto the switching means. The rotary switches are provided with a contact/sensor system and with a detent mechanism. The detent mechanism determines the number of possible switch positions. Rotary switches may feature different switch positions that can be set by rotating the switch spindle in one or another direction. Rotary switches may convert positions into binary numbers; such switches are known as coded switches. A rotary electromechanical encoder includes the overall characteristics of a rotary switch, but has additional mechanical movements. Pyrometers A pyrometer comes in very useful in industrial places where measuring and controlling inputs and outputs of a computer system become far too dangerous for a human to undertake the responsibility. It is often used to determine and control the temperature; however, it can also be used for radiation purposes. The word pyrometer is derives from the Greek word for fire, and the Greek word for measure, which is meter. As previously said, pyrometers are optical aids and although now days there are many forms of pyrometer as the need for more specific, demanding control systems are required the most basic still works on the principle below; On the previous page we can see how a basic optical pyrometer works, the only problem being that it can display temperatures that are high (up to around 700oC, but is inefficient for very low temperatures. As temperature inside the work place/furnace increases, so does the filament inside the pyrometer giving off a red colour, indicating the heat capacity. Using digital readouts the user can use the pyrometer to calculate the temperature of the material and also use the pyrometer to heat the material or furnace, or wherever the control system is placed to whatever they require. Thermocouples A thermocouple is a very simple heat/temperature sensor and comprises of two components. One end is joined tightly and the other end is separated. It is the end that is separated that is considered to be the output of the control system, and this is the end that actually generates the voltage. This voltage is then proportional to the heat or temperature to which it is measuring. This then means that the hotter the temperature the more voltage is output. Below can be seen the two most commonly found applications of thermocouples; Measuring room temperature Monitoring the presence of a pilot light It is the actual materials used within the control system that determines the application. There are then thermocouple types derived which can be used for differing purposes. Thermocouples are easy to use and require no batteries or fancy electronics. However, the voltage signals generated are very small so an amplifier may be required if you wish to read the temperatures into a computer Control System Thermometers Control system thermometers consist of a normal day to day thermometer thats connected to an electric circuit. Then, when the heat/temperature reaches a certain level it can be indicated or displayed in a number of ways, for example if connected correctly we could have it so that the temperature, when it hits 20, displays a red light located somewhere else, and, then when it falls below the light goes off. Inductosyn The idea of an inductosyn is to read the measurements of current within a system and then make extremely accurate measurements or movements based upon these readings. The principal in which it works is as follows. Incremental Absolute An inductosyn has a metal block in which grooves are cut out. Along these grooves are continuous strips of magnetic metal, then, a current is passed from one end to the other. The sliding block has an identical strip set in to it completes the circuit when connected with the other strip. Now we have the possibility of resistance change, by sliding the sliding block from one end to the other we have a system that changes the resistance of the circuit. This then increases and decreases the current accordingly. This is then output to a display which the user can see. This relationship between current and movement can then be used to move objects very small distances with a tremendously high degree of accuracy. This is all based on the current. Thermistor A thermistor is a type of resistor that varies resistance in a computer control system according to the temperature readings. Thermistors are thermally sensitive resistors whose prime function is to exhibit a large, predictable and precise change in electrical resistance when subjected to a corresponding change in temperature. A temperature sensor application would be compared to that off the one found in a central heating system. A sensor would detect the temperature in the air, by using a thermometer and then change as desired using something like a thermistor. The thermistor would act as the thermostat. Therefore, when the thermostat is changed, we can change the output of the heating system accordingly. The thermistor is widely used and often unknown to the untrained eye. Linear Limit Switches The theory behind the linear limit switch is very straight forward. Basically the linear limit switch is a button, that when activated starts a process. In relation to computing its like an event drive operation. For the linear limit switch to be activated it must be pressed. For example, in a lift, how do we get the lift to stop going up, or, stop going down, or stop on the right floor. It would be of my opinion that a linear limit switch is implemented, so that when the lift reaches the required floor, a switch is activated and the lift stops and the doors open. However, its not limited to lifts, the linear switch is a very common device. In the picture on the left we can see a clear example of a linear limit switch. The operation needed to be performed is for that of the swimming pool cover, when the cover reaches the end of the pool the switch is pressed and the motor stops working, this then stops the problem of the cover falling off of the reel.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Importance Of Exercise In Older People Physical Education Essay

The Importance Of Exercise In Older People Physical Education Essay In older adults, physical activity is a necessary action to provide and maintain health.1 A substantial amount of empirical evidence has demonstrated that the health benefits associated with participation in physical activity can maintain functional independence and ultimately improve quality of life.2-.3 In addition, participation in physical activity improves self-esteem, mental alertness and social interaction, and decreases levels of depression.4-5 Physical activity is also a major independent modifiable risk factor that has a protective effect against the onset of cardiovascular disease, ischemic stroke, type 2 diabetes, and cancer.6-7 However, a preliminary report in 2007 by the National Statistical Office of Thailand showed that more than 58% of Thai elderly engaged in physical activity less often than recommended for good health.8 Therefore, it is imperative that physical activity among the aged population is evaluated. A review of physical activity studies reveals that the physical environment is significantly associated with physical activity participation. According to Bandura, physical environment plays either the role of facilitator or obstacle in human motivation through the interaction between cognitive functions and environment.9-10 Both natural features and human constructs related to environment may affect physical activity engagement.11 Physical environment positively influences physical activity within older people.12-18 While the significance of physical environment is well recognized, an accurate measure is needed to identify the specific characteristics of the physical environment for physical activity, with respect to older people. If there is low error in the assessment, the explanation of the relationship between physical environment and physical activity will be raised. The concept of behavior setting helps to elucidate the influence of physical environment on physical activity.19 Behavior occurs within a physical and social context. So, the behavior of older people will be influenced by environment the neighborhood, community, or home environment. The home environment is a primary setting for the performance of daily activities among older people.20 In Thailand, most older people stay and participate in physical activity in their home. Although previous studies have assessed only convenience of facilities and access to equipment at home related to physical activity, the characteristics of home environment is the least studied potential determinant of participation in physical activity.11-12 Existing investigations use either neighborhood-focused scales to determine physical environment 14,21-22, or have applied both neighborhood and availability of facilities in the community.18,23 A review of relevant research indicates that aspects of the physica l environment, such as safety, traffic volume, street lighting, unattended dogs, having a sidewalk, and accessibility to public recreation places influence physical activity,14-18 whereas other evidence suggests equivocal results.21-22,24 At least one potential reason exists for this inconsistency which may be related to the physical environment measurement, particularly with older adults. Most physical environment questionnaires were developed in western countries. These measurements have involved different neighborhood and community settings; assessed in different dimensions such as convenience, safety, accessibility, and facility. Even though the physical environment questionnaires have been validated in western countries, they have not been tested in others settings. Due to differences of geographic features, culture, and patterns of living, a need exists to assess the physical environment of Thai elderly to confirm reliability and validity in this cultural context. Furthermore, the relationship of the physical environment of home and physical activity of older Thai people is still unknown. Understanding features of the physical environment related to physical activity may provide an effective implementation design to motivate older Thai people to participate in physical activity. For these reasons, a modified instrument, the Thai Environmental Support for Physical Activity for Older Thai people (TESPA) for assessing the physical environment including home, neighborhood, and community environment needs to be modified and validated for the older Thai population. This study addressed this shortcoming by modifying and confirming a three-factor structure for physical environment in a sample of older adults in Thailand. We hypothesized that a correlated three-factor structure for the TESPA would fit the data well and that these factors would possess good internal consistency. Additionally, we hypothesized that higher scores on the subscales of the TESPA would be significantly and positively correlated with higher levels of physical activity. Moreover, our study purpose was to prepare physical environment questionnaire for a large descriptive study related to physical activity in older Thai people. Objective The purpose of this project was modification and assessment of the TESPA scale in older Thai people to provide a reliable and valid measure that is culturally congruent and useful for future research. Measures Demographics. -A personal data sheet was used to obtain demographic and socioeconomic data including age, gender, income, marital status, education level, area of living, the length of living in their residence and medical history. The Chula Mental Test (CMT), an interviewing questionnaire developed by Jittapunkul, and colleagues was administered to determine the cognitive function of older Thai people who has difficulties in reading and writing.25 The CMT consists of 13 items related to cognitive function. Scales are coded on a dichotomous score of 0 (incorrect) and 1 (correct); items 5 and 12 have two sub-scales, and items 3 and 13 have three sub-scales each. Total scores indicate the cognitive function and range from 0-19. Scores 0-4 illustrate severe cognitive impairment, scores 5-9 depict moderate cognitive impairment, scores 10-14 reveal mild cognitive impairment, and scores 15-19 demonstrate normal cognitive function. Physical activity. -Physical activity was assessed by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Long form (IPAQ-L). The IPAQ-L was developed by the International Consensus Group for the Development of an International Physical Activity Questionnaire at the WHO in 1998.26 The IPAQ-L includes 5 parts: work-related activities, transport-related activities, domestic activities, and time spent sitting during the previous 7 days. In addition, the IPAQ-L assesses the frequency, intensity and duration of all daily physical activity. In summary, total physical activity equals the MET score, which is the sum of minutes spent in each domain multiplied by the MET value.26 We used a cut-off point 600 METs, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the United States of America and the American College of Sports Medicine.27 Threshold values for the IPAQ-L in the present study were categories insufficiently active ( 600 METs-min-week) We translated and adapted the IPAQ-L to fit the habits of older Thai people; content validity was determined by three experts. The content validity index of the IPAQ-L was .96. Numerous studies testing the test-retest reliability of the IPAQ-L revealed results ranging from 0.63 to 0.91, which indicated good repeatability.26,29 In the present study, the stability of the IPAQ-L questionnaire was reported to be 0.77 in 30 Thai elderly. Methods A cross-sectional design was used in the current study. The process of modification of the questionnaire included two phases (see Figure 1). In phase I, the instrument was modified as follows: 1) questionnaire improvement stage and 2) quantification stage. In phase II, instrument assessment was conducted to examine construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis and the known-group method. Insert figure 1 here Phase 1: Modification of instrument Stage 1: Questionnaire improvement stage consisted of measurement review, translation, instrument refinement and item construction. Measurement review and translation procedure: Physical environment is defined as older peoples perception of the physical environment to facilitate or hinder physical activity engagement in three settings: home, neighborhood, and community. We reviewed the relevant research regarding measurement of physical environment from the literature. The existing measurement was chosen based on definition and psychometric properties of measurement. After obtaining written consent from the author, the original questionnaire was translated into Thai versions by the researcher and an independent translator according to the translation-back translation method.28 The Thai version was evaluated by three Thai/English bilingual people. The questionnaire was translated back into English by two Thai-English independent translators who each had taught English to graduate students for more than 20 years. We then compared both versions in the original language, conducted checks with the translators, discussed the differences, and produced a final conse nsus version. 1.2 Instrument refinement and item construction: We modified the translated instruments to achieve a closer cultural fit for older Thai people. During October to December 2007, a preliminary study was conducted with ten elders: five who lived in a municipal area and five in a non-municipal area. The participants were selected from a broad range of backgrounds: five elders had elementary education and had worked in the agricultural sector, three elders had secondary education and had worked as small businesses owners, and two elders were retired and held bachelors degrees. Open-ended interviews were applied to ensure that instrument content and language were suitable for Thai elderly. They were interviewed in their home or a temple in their village. The participants were encouraged to share their opinions regarding the relevancy of items and appropriateness to the culture of older Thai people. Additionally, participants were encouraged to think of additional items that potentially could be used in the questionnaire. Each participant was interviewed twice for 30 minutes for each time, or until no new data occurred. In the preliminary study, no participant refused to participate. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Categories and coding were derived from data sources and previous related studies. Statements by participants about the physical environment were delineated and identified as a content domain. Representative phrases and terms were marked to be used as potential items so that the language of the participants could be preserved. Additional items then were discussed with two Thai experts and an American expert in geriatric nursing. As a consequence, the measurement was modified. Stage 2: Quantification stage This stage involved the validity and reliability of the psychometric properties of the modified measurement. Content validity of the scale was evaluated by three geriatric experts including one physician in geriatric physical activity, one expert in geriatric community nursing, and one expert in geriatric nursing. The experts were asked to rate the level of relevancy between the items and the definition of the concepts as represented. A four-point Likert-type scale ranging from 4 (strongly relevant) to 1 (strongly irrelevant) was used to rate each item. Data collection started in October 2008 after obtaining approval from the Institutional Review Board at Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. Both written and verbal informed consent was obtained in Thai on the same date as the data collection. The informed consent form explained the purpose of the study, benefits, risks, the types of questionnaires and tasks to be completed, and the length of time needed to complete the interview. In particular, it explained about risk prevention and treatment when the risk may occur during the interview or when collection of data is taking place. Permission was obtained from participants prior to data collection. At the setting, the participants were informed about the purpose of the study and their right to refuse participation. If participants chose not to answer the questionnaire, they could withdraw from the study at any time without penalty. They were also notified that their relationship with the health care team would not be affected. Their names were not used; instead, a code number was used to ensure confidentiality. There was no harm to the participants in this study. In addition, to assess the feasibility of using psychometric properties, the modified measurement was determined in the pilot study. The consent was obtained from the directors of primary care units, one in an urban area and the second in a rural area. A purposive sample of 15 older people from each setting was recruited in the pilot study; no respondent refused or dropped out in this stage. The participants were older people, with a mean age of 70+ 4.19 years. Most participants were female (76.7%), married (53.3%), had elementary education (80%), were employed (62.6%), with a household income of less than 5,000 Baht per month (approximately US$147) (76.7%). A substantial proportion (63.3%) lived in urban areas and had lived on average for 44.6 years in their residence. Of the sample, more than half reported sufficient physical activity level (50%), whereas 20% had a low physical activity level. A total of 23.3 % reported having no current health problems, while 16.7 % had hypertensi on. The most frequent type of physical activity reported was household related activity, followed by leisure time activity, transportation related activity, and occupational activity. Stability of reliability was obtained in two weeks, whereas internal consistency was assessed at baseline. Phase 2: Assessing the Instrument Construct validity of the modified scale was determined in the main study. Multi-stage random sampling was employed to obtain a sample of 336 elderly (aged 60 years and older) residing in 12 villages from six provinces of Thailand, who were not part of the preliminary study or the pilot study. In each village, 28 participants were selected by a systematic sampling technique from a name list obtained from the villages primary care unit. A simple random technique was applied and only one member in each family was included in the study. The participants were determined to be eligible to participate in the study if they scored >15 on the CMT, were able to ambulate without assistive devices, and were willing to participate in the present study. Data were collected from November 2008 to April 2009. An authorization letter was sent to officers of the primary care unit in all 12 settings to ask for their consent. After obtaining their consent, the public health nurses of the primary care units were asked by the researcher to make appointments with participants. When verbal agreement was obtained, the participants were asked to sign a consent form. The modified questionnaire was used to conduct interviews lasting between 15 to 20 minutes; each participant received a handkerchief in appreciation for their participation. A total of 336 questionnaires were selected for accuracy of data entry. Statistical analysis showed that two cases with a single or more than one missing value on community environment were deleted, leaving 334 cases for analysis. According to IPAQ Research Committee guidelines, the physical activity scores were processed to reduce data comparability. Ten cases were excluded by the truncation process due to the total duration value being more than 3 hours per activity, and four cases were eliminated because of multivariate outliers. Therefore, 320 cases remained for analysis. Most of the participants in the main study were female, married, had elementary education, and a household income less than 5,000 Baht per month (approximately US$147). Approximately 70% of the participants reported at least one health problem. Shared living was the most frequent living arrangement reported (92.8%) with an average of 4.11 persons per household. A substantial proportion (61.9%) lived in an urban area and stayed in their own residence. Data analysis Descriptive data are presented as mean + SD. The internal reliability of the scale was based on an alpha coefficient greater than or equal to .70; 30 stability of the scale was analyzed by product correlation coefficient. Reliability of each item, overall reliability, and construct validity of the scale were determined using structural equation modeling (SEM).31 The known-group technique was conducted using the multivariate analysis of variance, to compare the physical environment of those who reported sufficient physical activity and those who did not. Statistical significance for analyses except SEM was defined as p Results Phase 1: Modification of instrument Stage 1: Questionnaire improvement stage Following determination of the validity and reliability of the instrument, results were used to make modifications. The following procedures were undertaken. 1.1 Measurement review and translation procedure: Findings from prior studies demonstrated that most physical environment measurements were designed to identify specific characteristics of the built environment (e.g. distance between destinations, presence of sidewalk), and showed moderate to high reliability. Blocks of questions appeared to have different reliability among urban and rural respondents. Only one measurement was constructed for older people.12 A meta-analysis study by Duncan and colleagues concluded that the environmental characteristics in measurement presented in physical activity include facilities, sidewalks, shops and services in walking distance, heavy traffic, high crime, street lighting, and unattended dogs.32 The Social-physical Environmental Supports for Physical Activity Questionnaire (ESPA) is a measurement that designed to capture and assess the supporting social and physical environment for physical activity typically performed by all age.33 The ESPA was selected to collect data in this study because it is closely congruent with the Thai context, and indicates both neighborhood environment and community environment. In addition, the coefficient differences between urban respondents and rural respondents of this scale were small when compared with the other questionnaires.34 Moreover, the previous validity and reliability value of ESPA was acceptable.34 The ESPA is composed of two domains: the social and the physical environment domains. The physical environment is composed of 20 items: 10 neighborhood items (access, characteristics, barriers, use), and 10 community items (access, and barriers). A Likert-scale was used to assess neighborhood items, except for an item on public recreat ion facilities which allowed response options as 1(yes) or 0 (no). The community items have response options of 1(yes) or 2(no), with score form items on recreation facilities, whereas a community item used a Likert Scale. The higher the summary score the stronger the physical environment. The ESPA questionnaire was translated into Thai. Instrument refinement and item construction: All participants recommended that some items of the ESPA questionnaire be deleted and many remarked that the questionnaire format be reviewed. Most participants suggested that 21 physical environment items be eliminated including public swimming pools, sidewalks, parks, walking trails, bike paths, recreational centers, shopping malls (sometimes used for physical activity or walking programs), and being a private member of a recreational facility . These items reflected physical activities and sites that were uncommon in Thailand and thus were not deemed to be valid it this cultural context. As well, five pages of the scale and various types of choices took up too much time and were difficult to answer; for example: In general, would you say that motorized traffic in your neighborhood isà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. Heavy, Moderate or Light., When walking at night, would you describe the STREET lighting in your neighborhood asà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦..Very good, Good, Fair, Poor or Very poor and How safe are the public recreational facilities in your community? would you sayà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Very safe, Somewhat safe, Somewhat unsafe or Not safe at al. Additionally, the literal translation of the word physical activity into Thai git-ja-gam-taang-gaa or à  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ´Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‹â€ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ £Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ £Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸-à  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ²Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã¢â‚¬ ¡Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ²Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ¢ (git-ja-gam = activity; taang-gaai= physical) was unfamiliar to older people. Most participants thought this term was difficult to understand and felt that it was not applicable to them. The elders preferred the term kleuan-wai-ok-raeng or à  Ã‚ ¹Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ¥Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ·Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¹Ã‹â€ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ­Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¹Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ «Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ­Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ­Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¹Ã‚ Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ £Ãƒ  Ã‚ ¸Ã¢â‚¬ ¡ (kleuan-wai= movement; ok-raeng= expend energy) instead to define physical activity. The term kleuan-wai-ok-raeng was therefore applied to this study. The interview findings illustrated that the statements contribute to physical environment among participants was delineated and identified as a content domain. Home was most frequently mentioned as a favorite place for engagement in physical activity. The majority of participants expressed that they generally preferred engaging in physical activity at home because of safety concerns and convenience. Representative phrases and terms were marked to be used as potential items so that the language of the participants could be preserved. As a result, the home environment subscale was formulated, and it was consisted of safety and convenience both inside and around home. Based upon the experts suggestions, 21 items that were considered irrelevant on the ESPA were eliminated and four additional items related to home environment were added to the ESPA. Therefore, the modified scale was called Thai Environment Support for Physical Activity in older Thai people (TESPA). A Likert scale was used to assess physical environment for physical activity. Possible responses were 1(strongly disagree), 2(disagree), 3(neither agree nor disagree), 4(agree), and 5(strongly agree). The possible ranges of scores for home, neighborhood, and community sub-scale were 4-20, 3-15, and 3 15 respectively. The total score was calculated by computing the numerical ratings for each answer. The possible scores ranged from 10 to 50. Higher scores indicated a higher level of perceived physical environment supportive of physical activity. In short, the TESPA was conceptualized to include three subscales, with the six items serving as supportive neighborhood and community environments, and the four new items as supportive of home environment. Neighborhood environment was defined as the area around their home to which they could walk within 10 minutes.23 A supportive neighborhood environment referred to older peoples perceptions of support including: characteristics, access, and barriers of physical activity; a pleasant neighborhood for walking; low traffic volume; and lack of unattended dogs in their neighborhood.23 Secondary, community environment is defined as the area contained within a 20-minute drive from the respondents home.23 Community environment support refers to older peoples perceptions of convenience and safety of physical activity in their community: convenience of facilities of the Primary Care Unit; access to parks, playgrounds, and sports fields; and the safety of public recreation facilities.23 Finall y, home environment support is defined as participants perceptions of convenience and safety regarding their home environment, both in and around their home, in relation to their participation in physical activity. Stage 2: Quantification stage The Content Validity Index of the TESPA questionnaire was 0.92. The reliability coefficients of TESPA scale was 0.73 and the test-retest reliability of scale was .76. The results of the pilot study demonstrated that respondents took between 15 to 20 minutes to complete the questionnaire. The measurements were culturally appropriate for older Thai people and the procedures were followed without any difficulty. Phase 2: Assessing the Instrument The physical activity score ranged from 0 to 2203.50 MET-minute/week with a median of 849.25 (SD = 438.63), and the interquartile rang of 670.13 MET-minute score. The skewness coefficient (.26) and the kurtosis statistic (-.52) indicated that the majority of the subjects reported a moderate physical activity score and a close proximity to a normal distribution. Also, 65% of the participants of this study were sufficiently active and 35% were not. The total sum scores of physical environment ranged from 19.00 to 50.00, with a mean of 34.87 (SD = 6.47). The skewness value (.26) and the kurtosis value (-.49) indicated that the majority of the respondents had moderate physical environment scores and the variance was distributed normally. Construct validation was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis, and the known-group technique. Based on confirmatory factor analysis, the findings demonstrated that the construct of TESPA was composed of three underlying subscales: home, neighborhood, and community environment. The correlation among items ranged from .02 to .77 and the total scale could explain 61.01% of the variance of physical environment. The home, neighborhood, and community subscale could account for 29.4%, 19.7%, and 12.0% of the variance, respectively. The next analysis tested the three-factor model. The measurement model testing was designed to estimate which ten items were used as indicators for the model. Although the original model was statistically significant, the model was not consistent with the data /df= 4.59 and RMSEA more than 0.05 (= 151.54, df= 33; p Insert figure 2 here Table 1 illustrates the loading with t-values and squared multiple correlation coefficients among each observed variables for TESPA scale. The results revealed that all indicators of the TESPA measurement had significant low to high parameter estimates, which were related to their specific constructs and validated the relationships among observed variables and their constructs. The squared multiple correlations for observed variables of the latent variables were ranged from 0.02 to 0.92. The R2 of item 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were acceptable indicators, except for the item 1, 7, 8, 9, and 10 which were less than .40. Insert Table 1 here The known-group technique is an examination of relationships based on theoretical prediction. 35 Table 2 shows the mean values for each of the TESPA subscales and physical activity subgroups for the complete sample. Those who demonstrated sufficient physical activity had significantly higher physical environment scores along all three subscales and total score. In addition, each subscale was positively correlated with participation in physical activity including neighborhood (r=.30, p Insert Table 2 here Discussion: Testing of the TESPA measurement model in the current study provided additional evidence for the validity and reliability. The findings are discussed in the following section. The content validity and construct validity of the newly designed TESPA scale were accepted. Continued support for the construct validity of the scale was also provided through confirmatory factor analysis and the known-group method. The TESPA measurement model demonstrated that all sub-scales of the measurement had significant low to high parameter estimates, which were related to their specific constructs and validated the relationships among observed variables and their constructs. Within the known-group method, the findings demonstrated that physical environment was significantly correlated with physical activity. This finding indicated that older people with high perceptions of safety, convenience, and accessibility in their home, neighborhood, and community environment were more likely to participate in physical activity. Similarly, active older people who met guideline recommendations for good health scored significantly higher in each of three factors supportive home, neighborhood, and community environment than those who did not. Physical environments affect the participation in behavior by means of the interaction between cognitive functions and environment through human motivation.9-10 Bandura argued that a better environment provides a great opportunity to perform a behavior.10 According to the empirical data in the present study, a plausible explanation for this result contributed to characteristics of the Thai elderly. The majority of the elders sampled have lived in their home for a median 30 years; consequently, they were familiar with the physical characteristics of their environment in and outside the home. It is possible that the friendly environment contributed to motivate them for physical activity engagement, while unfriendly environments discouraged activity. For reliability, although the R2 for item 1, 7, 8, 9 and 10 indicated that these items should be considered irrelevant for the TESPA scale, the measurement model was a good fit with the empirical data. Not only was this scale firstly modified and validated in older Thai adults, but also normative data for comparison in the elderly or other study were not available. Approximately 61 % of the variance in the TESPA scale was explained by the 10 items, whereas 39 % of the variance in this scale remains unexplained. Corresponding with the SCT approach, Bandura argued that nearly all aspects of the physical environment can influence physical activity.36 Owing to the fact that the TESPA measurement includes only safety, convenience, and accessibility aspects of physical environment, it is possible that other aspects may contribute more to physical activity than these aspects. Other aspects of the physical environment may still influence engaging in physical activity; a need is indicated for work to identify these aspects yet unidentified. Therefore, continued evaluation of the psychometric properties both in the other sample and new additional items are necessary to confirm this study. Limitations and recommendations: This study was limited by homogeneity of the sample. The majority of participants was female, married, low socioeconomic status, and lived in their home. Continued testing of the TESPA scale, particularly with socio-economically diverse older adults, is needed to insure that this measure is consistent. Additionally, using objective measurement should be considered, to further add to the validity of the findings and confirm the subjective report. Further, the item related to community environment should be explored via a qualitative study to explore and understand with the physical environment of Thai elderly. Nevertheless, based on factors of the TESPA, manipulation of these factors with cognitive behav

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Capital Punishment is Murder Essays -- Against Death Penalty Essays

American history is replete with examples of brutality and foolishness that will forever blot the American conscience. Early in this century, Sacco and Vanzetti were railroaded for a murder of which they were almost certainly innocent. The trial was a farce, and the verdict was a more a result of bias against Italians than of the evidence. Their lives were forfeit. Later in the century, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were tried for conspiracy to commit espionage. Despite questionable evidence and even more questionable conduct on the part of prosecuting attorneys and government agencies, they were convicted; the verdict was a statement of public hysteria and fear of Communism. They too met the executioner. Not yet ingrained in the annals of history, in the past months the state of Texas executed a man who even the state admitted had not pulled the trigger, but was only an accomplice. If the recent elections prove anything, it is that these examples of the state-sanctioned murders of inno cents have done nothing to change the American mind. Many Republicans ran and won on a "law and order" platform; in New York, Governor George Pataki defeated former Governor Mario Cuomo largely on the basis of Cuomo's opposition to capital punishment. This article is an appeal to readers' morality, to their consciences. It does attempt to show that the death penalty is costly and impractical (though it is), or that it is unconstitutional (which it may well be). The article is an appeal for mercy. Perhaps the greatest problem with the death penalty, as the cases of the Rosenbergs and of Sacco and Vanzetti point out, is the chance for error incurred in capital cases. A study conducted at Stanford University found that, since 1900, more than fifty pe... by criminals unless the criminals are all destroyed: it is a war of us against them and we must use whatever means are necessary to fight against them. Even more moderate advocates of capital punishment tend to hold to a black-and-white morality that justifies the brutality of capital punishment as a necessary act of self- protection. However, before giving in to fear of crime and justifying the deaths of innocents that inevitably result from the institution of capital punishment, we should remember that one of the few things that distinguishes human from animal is the capacity for mercy. Even if we could be absolutely certain of a person's guilt, by killing him or her do we not make murderers of ourselves. Darrow reminds us exactly what it means for society to abandon its mercy: "I would hate to live in a state that I didn't think was better than a murderer."

Friday, October 11, 2019

Big Foot

The Mystery of Bigfoot Bigfoot is unquestionably North America’s biggest crypto zoological mystery. The idea of Bigfoot has been around for hundreds of years, its history and possible sightings have been documented for years on end. Throughout history, man has battled the topic of Bigfoot and if this creature really does exists. Researchers have found arguable evidence, and numerous sightings have been reported throughout North America. Then again, roughly 70% of sightings reported are a misidentification.Bigfoot supposedly inhabits forests mainly in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Scientists discount the existence of Bigfoot and consider it to be a combination of  folklore, misidentification, and  hoax, rather than a living animal. So the question remains, is the existence of this creature fact or fiction? So where does the name â€Å"Bigfoot† come anyway? It is said that this Indian-sounding word was coined in the 1920’s by J. W. Burns, a tea cher who for fours years collected stories about wild, hairy giants from his Chehalis Indian friends.Burns combined several similar Native Canadians’ names for these creatures and created the word â€Å"Sasquatch†. In recent years, scientists and folklorists looking to bring respectability to the subject but most North Americans still use the name â€Å"Bigfoot†. The first use of the now widely used label did not occur until a construction worker named Jerry Crew appeared at a northern California newspaper office with a cast of the alleged Bigfoot’s foot found in the mud in Bluff Creek Valley.Hundreds of people have reported seeing the Bigfoot or it’s footprints but none have physical evidence to back up their stories. They describe the creature as standing from seven to ten feet tall and weighing more than six hundred pounds. The distinctive footprint shows a track as left by a giant five toed human foot. The average length is fourteen to sixteen inches long. The most controversial evidence of Bigfoot's existence is the infamous Patterson video. It was filmed in 1967 near Bluff Creek California. By Roger Patterson, an amateur Bigfoot hunter and rodeo cowboy.In the video, which was filmed in a dry creek bed, Bigfoot appears to be walking along the creek bed, and at one point even stared at the camera. The footage has been analyzed many times by scientists, some of which say the footage is realistic while others do not. Many times when people see something like Bigfoot they think that they will be ridiculed by their friends and neighbors, so they keep there encounter secret for many years. Until others tell their stories. The top three questions that come into some ones mind when they hear about Bigfoot are â€Å"is he man, myth or creature? . Many do not believe of such a creature lurking the forests and are uneducated on the topic so they come to the quick conclusion that someone disguised himself in a costume for attention perhaps. The majority believes strongly that Bigfoot is evidently a myth or hoax for the simple logic that there is not enough evidence to prove Bigfoot’s existence. The most arguable evidence are footprints that can be easily replicated to furthermore puzzle scientists. Also, the lack of carcasses and excrements just don’t add up.Lastly, the big question of is it just a creature which means every sighting would have to be a misidentification. Scientists do believe and have partial evidence that Bigfoot could be a relative with an ancient ape named â€Å"Gigantopithecus†. Then again, some footprints have been reported with claw marks, which could be a grizzle bear. Many can speculate the existence of Bigfoot but until a body is scientifically examined, the riddle of Bigfoot will continue as one of cryptozoology’s biggest and most famous enigmas. Even if Bigfoot is just one big hoax, the myth will live on forever.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Policies Introduced in the Past 25 Years Related to Education

Over the past 25 years, different policies have been put in place to influence the education system in different ways. Some sociologist would say that the main aim of these policies were to result in the marketization of the education system. Other sociologist would disagree; they believe that trying to create less inequality was the main intention when It comes to the educational reform. When the New Labour came to power, it seemed that policies they were in favour of were more aimed towards trying to create less inequality of different schools.One policy The New Labour introduced was free places in nurseries, this would ensure children from all backgrounds started educational development early and started to gain skills needed to start school. This would also give working class parents a chance to go out and work whilst their child is at nursery. They also introduced ‘Educational Action Zones’ these areas of deprivation were giving extra funding in order to lessen the inequality between these schools in worse areas to the schools in better areas.This is trying to give people of worse financial areas a better chance to gain access to good schools, and not just be limited to worse performing schools just because they live in a poorer area. They also introduced The EMA award, this was to try and get pupils to stay on in education past ages 16 (college, sixth form, apprenticeships etc. ) because if the pupils parent earned below a certain amount then the child would be entitled to ? 30 a week to help them with any costs that staying on in education may have.Although this may be contradicted by the inequalities that have been put in place by the steep rises in fees for universities, this has meant that working class pupils are at a disadvantage in comparison with the middle class. Previous to this; the conservative government introduced new right policies which are viewed as trying to create a market place out of the education system. They introduced several policies in order to force different schools in to competing with each other; this would then result in schools doing better.They aimed to create a parentocracy, where parents had much more choice when it came to schools for their children, they were able to choose which school they wanted their child to attend, rather than it being dependant on catchment areas like it was previously. This would result in schools upping their standards to gain pupils and ensure that parents would pick their school, funding was changed to be dependent on the amount of pupils a school had. By doing better than ther schools, more pupils would want to attend and result in more funding for the school, benefitting them and then helping them to improve further. Although, in order to rank schools against each other, there would have to be a system in place, so league tables were introduced and schools had to sit SATs and GCSE exams, the results were ranked in the league tables and parents could look through different schools to see where they were placed and pick the best school for their child, much like a market place.OFSTED were also introduced to monitor and inspect schools, they would review the schools standards in several different categories giving a report to be viewed in order to judge the school as a whole and give parents a wider range of data on the schools, giving them more understanding and a better basis to choose which school they would like their child to attend. These policies meant that standards for schools rose as they competed against each other and parents had a greater understanding of schools and had more freedom when it came to choice.On the other hand, it did also create problems, because the better schools got more funding and pupils, the worse schools weren’t able to get the funding they needed to improve which meant the gap between schools achievement became wider as the better schools got better and the worse schools became worse off this created greater inequality. Schools also started to exclude students that would affect their results in the league tables, this also created inequality.These inequalities may have been the reason for the new labour’s aim to wipe out the inequality because there was so much created. Overall, The Conservative party and New Labour both introduced new policies to the education system; the conservative was more aimed towards creating a market in the education system, whilst new labour strived to wipe out inequality in the system and tackle the issue of poverty. Although this being said, the new labour may have created more competition in the system by introducing faith and specialist schools.

Case Study: An Overpopulated Country – Bangladesh

Tourism management mainly aims to reduce negative impacts of tourism, so as to achieve a more sustainable form of tourism. Sustainability in this context refers to the ability to develop and operate tourism in a way that both satisfies current needs and assure future viability of the industry. It has been recognised that for sustainable tourism to be viable, efforts need to be made by both public sector and the private sector. Depending on merely market forces will not achieve sustainability. The public sector, or mainly the government, can lay out laws and legislation, conduct research, as well as provide funds and expertise to aid sustainable tourism development and management, while the private sector can aid research in achieving sustainability, donate to funds and adopt sustainability into their tourism operations. The government can initiate sustainable tourism management. Negative impacts are felt by people involved in tourism, but most of the time, no actions were taken to remedy this problem. The public sector is often needed to initiate sustainable tourism management. For example, since 1997, the Pattaya Rehabilitation Project, initiated by government authorities and community leaders, has been ongoing to reduce the severity of problems in Pattaya. Also, Zimbabwe initiated the CAMPFIRE program which aided ecotourism development in many communities. One problem faced in achieving sustainability is the availability of funds. It is often hard to gain financial support from the private sector when their motives are profit-based. The government can implement taxes on tourism to finance tourism management. You can read also Costco Case Study For example, a US$90 tax on travellers entering the Seychelles. The revenue from this tax is used in environmental preservation and facilities improvements. Also, the government can provide expertise on sustainable tourism management to the tourism industry. A good knowledge of sustainability is seen to be required in order to plan an effective sustainable tourism strategy. For example, Zimbabwe initiated the CAMPFIRE program to provide knowledge and expertise to the rural communities in developing eco-tourism in their area. Moreover, the government can implement laws and regulation for preservation and conservation. Many countries have established protect areas such as wildlife reserves and enacted strict laws protecting the animals that draw nature-loving tourists. As a result of these measures, several endangered species have begun to thrive again. For example, in the rainforest covered slopes of central Africa's highlands, mountain gorilla reserves have been set up to protect this highly endangered species. It has also been recognised that continual monitoring and research of the tourism industry using effective data collection analysis is essential to help solve problems and bring benefits to the tourism development, destinations, tourist and the local community. However, one limitation is that usually only the government has the means to encourage such research. In addition, the public sector can develop and improve infrastructure needed for sustainable tourism. For example, in Pattaya, the Pattaya Rehabilitation Program has resulted in the development and operation of a much need facilities such as wastewater treatment plant, water reservoirs, roadways and commercial areas, as well as environmental development such as creation of parks. On the other hand, the private sector also plays an important role in managing tourism. The private sector can share information with the public sector to aid research in achieving sustainable tourism, as well as contribute to sustainable tourism by donations to funds financing sustainable management. For example, Citigroup Foundation donated $150,000 dollars in 2006 to support the Rainforest Alliance, which promote sustainable tourism development in Latin America. Also, although the government can facilitate sustainable management, the effectiveness often lies on whether the tourism operations abide with sustainability. An example of such cooperation can be seen in Masoka, Zimbabwe, where safari operators remove the rubbish of safari hunters after each hunt. Moreover, the private sector can provide other forms of support to the government's effort in managing tourism. For example, in Pattaya, the Pattaya Chapter of the Thai Hotel Association and the Pattaya Business and Tourism Association played an instrumental role in rallying support from the private sector for sustainable tourism in Pattaya. But despite the efforts made, we have to consider how effective they actually are in managing tourism. Sustainable tourism as seen today is possible. Examples of successful sustainable tourism management include Pattaya in Thailand, and ecotourism in areas of Zimbabwe such as Masoka. However, these successes are mainly the result of a well planned strategy, with sufficient funds, expertise, knowledge, and considerable efforts from both public and private sector. Cooperation between the public and private sector is essential for sustainability to be viable. Lack of cooperation can often result in limited success in achieving sustainability. For example, in Zimbabwe, authority to manage the wildlife resources is actually in the hands of rural district councils, which have a responsibility to devolve management authority to communities themselves. Not all councils have been willing or have made sufficient effort to devolve authority to these communities. As a result, this created a barrier to achieving sustainability through conservation in these areas. This comes to yet another problem, which is that the private sector should not only include commercial companies. It should also include local communities. It is widely recognised that involvement of the local communities is one of the key to achieving sustainable tourism. Another limitation is that due to profit motives, the private sector may be unenthusiastic in developing sustainable tourism. Sustainable tourism requires efforts such as cleaning up pollution and improving infrastructure, as well as limiting tourist number to a manageable figure. These can translate to a reduction in overall profits as operational costs increases and overall revenue falls. Also, sustainable management often require large funds in developing needed infrastructure and expertise and knowledge in management. This may not be available to some countries. However, it can be seen today that the severity of this problems are reduced with support from international agencies such as the Worldwide Fund for Nature. Lastly, one mistake seen in trying to achieve sustainable tourism is the undermining of local community's involvement. It has been recognised that one of the key to achieving sustainable tourism is a high involvement of local community in the planning, management and operation. Therefore, the private sector should not only include commercial companies, but also the local community. In conclusion, both the public and private sector are important in managing tourism. Successful tourism management requires an adequate level of cooperation between the authority, commercial companies and local communities.